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Full text of "Foods and food adulterants"

tj h 3 * /3> 







U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 



BULLETIN 



No. 13. 




FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



INVESTIGATIONS MADE UN1XER 

Dr. H. W. WILEY, Chief cSSxl 




PART FI 



i] a k rxc; rowD.EES. 

BY 

C. A. OBAMPTON, Assistant OHEM 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY or THE 



WA S II I xr.TO 
gov; office. 



J. M. RUSK, 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 
BULLETIN No. 13. 



FOODS 



AND 



FOOD ADULTEKANTS 



INVESTIGATIONS MADE UNDER DIRECTION OF 

Dr. H. W. WILEY, Chief Chemist. 



PART FIFTH: 

BA K IXG POW DEES. 

BY 

C. A. CRAMPTON, Assistant Tim mist. 



priiusiiKn iiv authoriti oi the secretari OE AGRII 1 LTURE. 



WASH I N'dTOs . 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 

1 B89, 
6360— pt. r> 1 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



Washington, D. C, August 17, 1889. 

Sir : I submit herewith for your examination and approval Part Five 
of Bulletin Xo. 13 on the adulteration of food. The present part con- 
sists of an investigation of baking powders and a resume of our present 
knowledge of the subject. 

In these investigations we have used every endeavor to avoid error 
and bias. Xo particular powder has been favored at the expense of any 
other one. Our samples have been purchased in the open market and 
we have had them to represent as fairly as possible the character of the 
goods sold. 

In such an investigation it is not possible to get results which will 
please every dealer and manufacturer, and we may therefore expect 
that many of our data will be distorted or denied by interested parties. 
A more serious embarrassment may also confront us, and that is the 
use of isolated portions of this report for advertising purposes. 

The public official who lends the name and authority of his office for 
advertising purposes has little regard for either, and less for the pro- 
prieties of his position. He has, however, no longer eonfrol of the data 
of his analyses when they have once been published by the proper au- 
thority. 

It would be well, in view of such facts, if the use of such matter for 
advertising purposes could be absolutely forbidden, in the present 
case I would like to emphasize the statement that any (lata or state* 
ments in the present Bulletin which may be paraded by advertisers in 
praise of their wares would show a discrimination wholly unauthorized 
by the spirit and scope of this work. 
Respectfully, 

II. W. Will v. 

Chi mist. 

Hon. J. M. Busk, 

Secretary of Agriculture. 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith Part Fifth of Bulletin 
No. 13, containing the results of au investigation into the character 
and composition of baking powders, in continuation of the work on 
food adulteration. My absence in connection with the sugar experi- 
ments has greatly delayed the completion of the work and the prepara- 
tion of this report. 

My thanks are due to Mr. K. P. McElroy and Mr. T. C. Trescot for 
the intelligent assistance rendered by them in the performance of the 
analytical work. 

Respectfully, 

G. A. Crampton, 

Assistant Chemist. 
Dr. H. W. Wiley, 

Chief Chemist. 

559 



AERATION OF BREAD. 

When bread is made by simply mixing Hour with water and baking 
the dough, the result is a hard, tough, compact mass, "the unleavened 
bread" of the Scriptures. The use of yeast to "leaven" the dough is 
doubtless almost as old as the art of baking itself. Both kinds of bread 
are mentioned in Mosaic history, and its use was known in Egypt and 
in Greece at very early periods. Xothiug has ever been found that 
could equal the action of yeast as a leavening agent. Carbonic-acid gas 
is generated by fermentation from the carbohydrates already existing 
in the bread, so that no foreign materials are introduced into it. The 
disengagement of the gas takes place slowly, so that it has its full effect 
in the lightening of the dough. This is an objection to its use, of course, 
when quick raising is desirable, and it is this slow action of yeast which 
has been the chief cause of the introduction of a chemical aerating agent. 

The method of aeration invented by Dr. Danglish, in England, in 
March, 1859, approximates more closely the action of yeast than any 
other method in so far as it introduces no permanent foreign substance 
into the bread. In this method water which has been previously charged 
with carbonic dioxide is used in making up the dough, the operation be- 
gin performed in a closed vessel, under pressure. As soon as the dough 
is taken from this vessel it immediately rises, from the expansion of the 
gas contained in it. The method has been modified by using instead of 
water a weak wort, made by mashing malt and flour, and allowing fer- 
mentation to set in. This acid liquid absorbs the gas more readily, and 
perhaps lias some slight effect on the albuminoids, the peptonization 
of which constitutes an advantage of yeast raised bread over that made 
by this method, in which the aeration is purely a mechanical operation. 
Tims the bread made by this process is somewhat tasteless, the fla- 
vors produced by fermentation within the bread being wanting. On 
the other hand, there is no danger of the improper fermentations which 
sometimes occur, and the process is especially adapted to Hours which 

would be apt to undergo such changes when fermented. Jago 1 Bays 

with reference to it : 

Working with flours thai are weak or damp or even bordering on the verge of on- 
•onndness, it is still poaaibleto piod-mr a Loa£thaf should i»»« wholesome and palata- 
ble, certainty superior to many sodden ami boot loaves one teea made from 1<>w- 
cjnalitN Soars fermented in the ordinary manner. In thns stating that it is possible 



'Chemistry of Wheat, Floor, and Bread, ami Technology of Bread- making. Lon- 
don. lddG. 



562 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

to treat Hours of inferior quality by this aerating method, tbe author wishes specially 
to carefully avoid giving the impression that it is the habit of those companies which 
work Dauglish's method to make use of only the lower qualities of flour; he has 
never had any reason whatever for supposing such to be the cm 

This method is in operation in all the larger cities of Great Britain, 
bat I have no knowledge of its being used in this country. 

CHEMICAL AERATING AGENTS. 

The necessity of sometimes having bread preparations raised quickly 
for immediate baking led to the use of chemical agents for this purpose. 
In all of these the expansive gas is the same as where yeast is used, 
but instead of its being derived from the constituents of the flour, it is 
obtained by the decomposition of a carbonate which is introduced, to- 
gether with an acid constituent to act upon jt, directly into the flour. 
When water is added to make the dough the chemicals are dissolved, 
the reaction occurs, and the carbonic acid is set free, while the salt re- 
sulting from the combination of the acid with the alkaline base of the 
carbonate remains in the bread and is eaten with it. Many suppose, 
and this idea is fostered by baking-powder manufacturers, that nothing 
remains in the bread, that everything is driven off during the baking. 
This is entirely erroneous, of course, and the residue necessarily left in 
the bread by baking-chemicals constitutes an objection to their use, and 
its amount and character determine to a large extent the healthfhluess 
of the combination used. The essential elements of such a combination 
are, first, a carbonate or bicarbonate which contains the gas combined 
with an alkaline base, and, second, an acid constituent capable of unit- 
inn with the base in the carbonate and thus liberating the carbonic acid 
gas. For the alkaline constituent bicarbonate of soda, " baking-soda," 
is almost exclusively employed — bicarbonate of ammonia much less. 
For the acid constituent, however, there is great diversity in the agents 
used. When the housewife mixes sour milk with baking soda to " raise" 
her griddle-cakes, she makes use of the free lactic acid of the former as 
the acid constituent of her chemical aerating agent When she uses 
"cream of tartar" or acid tartrate of potassium with soda, she uses (he- 
free tartaric acid of the former as an acid constituent, and this is the 
same combination that is used in one class of the baking-powders sold 
in the market. In fact, the entire line of such powders now sold is 
practically the outcome of the old time operation ot domestic chem- 
istry, mixing "saleratus" and "cream of tartar" to aerate rolls, muffins, 

pancakes, and such bread preparations, which were to be baked imme- 
diately after mixing, and could not well wait for the slow operation of 
yeast. They consist of an acid and an alkaline constituent in about the 
proper proportions for combination, and in a dry state, together with 
various proportions of a dry inert material, such as starch, added to 

prevent action between the chemicals themselves, so that the prepara- 
tion may be kept indelinitely. 



BAKING POWDERS. 563 



CONSUMPTION OF BAKING-POWDERS. 

The quantity of the different chemical preparations made and con- 
sumed under the name of " baking-powders," "yeast-powders," etc., in 
the United States can not be stated with any degree of accuracy ; neither 
the Statistical Division of this Department nor the Bureau of Statistics of 
the Treasury was able to give any information whatever upon this sub- 
ject. Mr. F. N. Barrett, editor of the "American Grocer," advised me 
that the New York Tartar Company would probably be best able to 
give something of an idea, at least, of the amount produced. A letter 
of inquiry sent to this firm elicited the following response: 

Dear Sir: Your note of inquiry of the 22d instant was received in due course of 
mail. We Lave delayed reply thereto because of the difficulty of securing with any de- 
gree of reliability the information you seek. We believe that no one can give a cor- 
rect estimate of the quantity of baking-powder annually consumed in.the United 
Stairs, but we are led to conclude from rather careful consideration that it amounts 
to between 50,000,000 and 75,000,000 pounds. Of this quantity probably two-thirds 
is made from cream of tartar, and the residue from phosphate and alum. 
Very respectfully, 

New York Tartar Company. 

This would seem rather a high estimate, implying as it does an an- 
nual average consumption of a pound each by every man, woman, and 
child in the country. Probably few persons would suppose that it 
reached such a figure. Taking the price per pound at 50 cents, which 
is about the maximum retail price charged the consumer, together with 
the lower of the two figures given above, we would have $25,000,000 as 
the amount annually paid by consumers for this one article. 

Granting that the above is somewhat of an overestimate, there can 
be Little doubt that no other article which enters into the composition 
of food stall's, and which is not of itself a nutrient, is the subject of so 
great an expenditure. 

The consumption of baking-powders does not seem to have become 
so extensive in Europe as in the United States, judging from the very 
small amount, of attention bestowed upon the subject in works on food. 
Jago 1 makes but Blight mention of their use. Doubtless the American 

people eat more largely of preparations of breadstuff's which are baked 

quickly, such as rolls, buns, etc. 

In view of the large quantity of these preparations now consumed, 
and a lack of knowledge amongst most people concerning their compo- 
sition and the chemical reactions that occur in their use, 1 have thought 
it proper tO give a somewhat detailed exposition of the principles in- 
volved, and to endeavor to explain, eveu to the uon-scientiflo reader, 

how these powders are made, and how they act. 

l Op. .it. 



564 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

RECENT INVESTIGATIONS. 

Two important studies of the composition and character of baking- 
powders have been made recently, one under the direction of the Ohio 
Dairy and Food Commission, and the other by the Dairy Commissioner 
of the State of New Jersey. 1 Work done in this way, which has the 
authority and weight of official sanction, is most valuable, and I have 
drawn largely upon the reports above mentioned in the following pages. 
Many other analyses of baking-powders have been made from time to 
time, and several extensive investigations have been carried out upon 
the relative merits of different kinds of pow4ers. In fact " baking- 
powder literature" is quite extensive. The active competition between 
makers of different brands, and the methods used by them in advertis- 
ing their goods, have made readers of newspapers and magazines 
familiar with all sorts of parti-colored statements about baking-powders 
in general,* and certain classes and brands in particular, and unfortu- 
nately such matter is not always confined to advertising columns. 
Most persons know comparatively little about baking-powders, and the 
general ignorance on the subject is taken advantage of and intensified 
by the manufacturers. The analyses and testimonials of eminent chem- 
ists frequently appear in such advertisements, and are often couched 
in terms that do little credit to the profession. I can make no use 
of such publications ; the only material I can accept as trustworthy 
are the reports cited above, where the official character of the work 
done affords ample assurance that the investigators were influenced by 
unbiased and disinterested motives. It is the proper province of such 
bodies as State boards of health to make investigations of this kind, 
and results arrived at in this way are always entitled to credence, while 
the conclusions of scientific men, however expert they may be, are 
always open to doubt when they receive compensation from parties 
who are interested in having the results lean in their direction. 

ADULTERATION. 

There is no recognized standard for the composition of a baking-pow- 
der, either in this country or abroad. To prove from a legal point 
of view that a powder was adulterated, it would be necessary to show 
that it contained some substance injurious to health. Most of the 
treatises on food adulteration give but little attention to this class of 

'While tin- present publication was passing through the press, I have received 
another official publication upon this subject, constituting Bulletin No. 10 of the 
Laboratory of the Inland Revenue Department, Ottawa, Canada, and prepared by 
A. McOill, assist ant to chief analyst. I regret that it appeared too late to allow of 
tin- incorporation into the present publication of any of the results and conclusions 
contained in it. Most of the powders examined were of Canadian manufacture, but 
tin hading American brands were also included, and the analyses were quite com- 
plete. 



BAKING POWDERS. 565 

substances, which, though not of themselves articles of food, enter into 
the composition of food preparations. Considerable space is devoted 
in such works, however, to the adulteration of bakers' chemicals. If a 
substance is sold as cream of tartar, for instance, which either is not 
cream of tartar, or is sophisticated with some cheaper substance, the 
seller could be convicted under food-adulteration laws, but if such a 
fraudulent cream of tartar were incorporated into a mixture with other 
chemicals and the whole sold as baking-powder, no conviction could be 
secured. In the famous " Norfolk baking-powder case" in England, 
which will be alluded to further on, the powder in question contained 
alum, which substance bakers are not allowed by law to use in bread. 
Yet the prosecution was not successful because it was directed against 
the sale of the powder, not against the bread made from it, there being 
no legal standard for substances sold as baking-powder in England. 

CLASSIFICATION OF BAKING-POWDERS. 

Baking-powders maybe conveniently classified according to the na- 
ture of the acid constituent they contain. Three principal kinds may 
be recognized as follows : 

(1) Tartrate powders, in which the acid constituent is tartaric acid 
in some form. 

(2) Phosphate powders, in which the acid constituent is phosphoric 
acid. 

(3) Alum powders, in which the acid constituent is furnished by the 
sulphuric acid contained in some form of alum salt. 

All powders sold at present will come under some one of these heads, 
although there are many powders which are mixtures of at least two 
different classes. 

TARTRATE POWDERS. 

The form in which tartaric acid is usually furnished in this class is 
bitartrate of potassium, or " cream of tartar." Sometimes free tartaric 
acid is used, but not often. Bitartrate, or aciif tartrate of potassium 
is made from crude argol obtained from grape juice. It contains one 
atom of replaceable hydrogen, which gives it the acidity that acts upon 
the carbonate. The reaction takes place according to the following 
equation : 

188 84 210 H 18 

KEI0 4 H 4 O 6 + NaHGO, = KNa0 4 H 4 O, ; + OO, + U.o 

Pot&Mium Sodium I'nt.issiuni-smlium Carbonic Water. 

bitartrate. bicarbonate. tartrate. dioxide. 

It will be seen that the products of the reaction are carbonic acid and 
double tartrate of potassium and sodium, the latter constituting the 
residue which remains in the bread. This salt is generally known as 
Rochelle salt, and is one of the component parts of seidlitx powders. 



566 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

A seidlitz powder contains 120 grains of this salt, but the crystallized 
salt contains four molecules of water, and thus the actual amount of crys- 
tallized Rochelle salt formed in the bakiug-powder reaction is greater 
than the combined weight of the two salts used. That is to say, if 184 
grains of bitartrate and 84 grains of bicarbonate are used in a bak- 
ing there will be a residue in the dough equal to 282 grains of Rochelle 
salt. The directions that accompany these powders generally give two 
teaspoonfulls as the proper amount to use to the quart of flour; prob- 
ably more is generally used. This would be at least 200 grains ; deduct- 
ing 20 per cent, for the starch filling we have 1G0 grains of the mixed 
bitartrate and bicarbonate, and this would form 165 grains of crystal- 
lized Rochelle salt in the loaf of bread made frt>m the qugrt of flour, or 
45 grains more thau is contained in a seidlitz powder. The popular idea 
is that the chemicals used in a baking-powder mostly disappear in bak- 
ing, and that the residue left is very slight. I doubt if many persons 
understand that when they use tartrate powders, which are considered 
to be the best class, or at least one of the best classes of such powders, 
they introduce into the breadstuff very nearly an equal weight of the 
active ingredient of seidlitz powders, and in a loaf of bread made from 
it they consume more than the equivalent of one such powder. 

Yet the character of this residue is probably the least objectionable 
of any of those left by baking-powder. Rochelle salt is one of the mild- 
est of the alkaline salts. The dose as a purgative is from J to 1 ounce. 
"Given in small and repeated doses it does not purge, but is absorbed 
and renders the urine alkaline." (United States Dispensatory.) 

Free tartaric acid, used instead of the bitartrate of potassium, would 
give less residue. In this case the reaction would be as follows ■ 

150 

IU\H,0„ + 

Tartaric 

arid. 

Bere L50 grains of tartaric acid, with 108 grains of bicarbonate of 
sodium, give 230 grains Qf residue, or 88 grains less than the combined 
weight Of the two ingredients. As to the character of this residue little 
is said in regard to the physiological properties of tartrate of sodium 
in the books, but probably it is essentially similar to the double tar- 
trate. The United States Dispensatory says of it (p. 17(J2): 

This Bait, in Oryst&lS, lias lxrn recommended by M. DeliOQl as ;in agTCAftble purga- 

ti\«-, almost wiiliout taste, and acting with power equal t<» thai of the ■nlphate <>f 
magnesium in the <1<>sc of 10 drachma ( 800 grains |. 

I do not know why this combination should be used so seldom by 

baking-powder manufacturers. The tree tartaric acid is more expen- 
sive than the bitartrate, but less of it is required in proportion to the 
amount of bicarbonate used. The former is more soluble, and this 

would probably be a practical objection to its use, as it is an object in 

baking powders that the gas should be Liberated slowly. It would per- 



168 


230 




H 


2NaHC0 3 = 


Na,C 4 H 4 0*2HsO 


+ 


2C0 2 


Bicarbonate 


Tartrate 




Carbonic 


Of sodium. 


of aoilimn. 




dioxide. 



BAKING POWDERS. 567 

haps be more difficult also to prevent action of the free acid upon the 
alkali, so that the powder would be more likely to deteriorate in keep- 
ing. Only one sample among those I examined was found to have been 
made with the free acid. 

One obstacle formerly encountered in the manufacture of bitartrate 
powders was the difficulty of obtaining the bitartrate pure. It con- 
tained from 5 to 15 per cent, of tartrate of lime incident to the method 
of manufacture. This brought a large quantity of inert material into 
the powder and lowered its efficiency. Bitartrate can now be had 98 
per cent, pure, quoted and guaranteed as such in the markets, so that 
there is no excuse for manufacturers to use the impure salt, which can 
properly be considered adulterated. 

PHOSPHATE POWDERS. 

The salt commonly used to furnish the phosphoric acid in this class 
is acid phosphate of lime, sometimes called superphosphate. The pure 
salt is monocalcic phosphate, CaH 4 (P0 4 ) 2 . It is made by the action of 
sulphuric acid upon ground bone, the result being an impure monocalcic 
phosphate with calcium sulphate. This mixture is sold as a fertilizer, 
as superphosphate. The salt is, of course, more or less purified for use 
in baking-powders, but the sulphate of lime is very difficult to get rid 
of entirely, and most phosphate powders contain considerable amounts 
of this impurity. The reaction which occurs when a phosphate powder 
is dissolved, that is the action of bicarbonate of soda upon monocalcic 
phosphate, is not well established, and perhaps varies somewhat with 
conditions. The following equation probably represents it fairly well: 

234 168 136 142 88 ."16 

CaII 4 (P0 4 ) 2 + 2NaH0O 3 = CaHP0 4 + Na 2 HP0 4 + 20O, + 2JI.O 

Monocalcic Bicarbonate of Monohydrogen . Disodic Carbonic Water, 

phospha'e. soda, calcic phosphate, phosphate, dioxnlt . 

Two hundred and thirty-four grains of monocalcic phosphate com- 
bined with 1G8 grains of bicarbouate of soda give 13G grains of mono- 
hydrogen calcic phosphate, and 142 grams of disodic phosphate. But 
crystallized sodic phosphate contains twelve molecules of water, and 
has a molecular weight of 358. So the total amount of residue from 402 
grains of the powder would be 494 grains, of which 136 grains is phos- 
phate of lime, and the rest phosphate of soda. So we see that here 
also the quantity of chemicals introduced into the dough is fully equal 
to the amount of the baking-powder used, including lilling. As to the 
nature of this residue^n phosphate powders, it would seem to be about 
as unobjectionable as in the tartrates. Phosphate of soda is " mildly 
purgative in doses of from 1 to 2 ounces'' (480-960 grains), according 
to the United States Dispensatory. Phosphates of calcium have the 
general physiological effect which is ascribed to all forms of phosphoric 
acid, but which does not seem to be well understood. 

Thosohates are administered therapeutically in some .'.ise> of defee- 



568 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

tive nutrition, and especially in scrofula, rickets, phthisis, etc. On ac- 
count of their being an essential constituent of animal tissues there 
would seem to be some ground for a preference over other forms of 
powders. The makers of phosphate powdersclaim that the use of such 
powders restores the phosphoric acid present in the whole grain of 
wheat, which is largely removed in the bran by milling processes. This 
claim would have more weight if there were not ample sources of phos- 
phoric acid in other forms of food, and if the quantity introduced by a 
baking-powder were not much greater than is required to make up the 
loss in the bran, and greater than is required by the system, unless in 
those cases where its therapeutic use is indicated, as in some of the con- 
ditions of malnutrition given above. 

Acid phosphate of soda is said to have been used in former years as 
a constituent of baking-powders, but appears to have been entirely 
superseded by the lime salt. 

ALUM POWDERS. 

In this class the carbonic acid is set free from the bicarbonate by the 
substitution of sulphuric acid, which combines with the sodium. The 
sulphuric acid is furnished by some one of the general class of salts 
known as alums, which are composed of a double sulphate of .alumiu- 
iuin and an alkali metal. The alum is .precipitated as hydrate, while 
that portion of the sulphuric acid which was combined with it goes to 
displace the carbonic acid in the bicarbonate. The alkali sulphate of 
the double salt remains unchanged. 

The alum of commerce is either potash alum, K^A^SO^.,. 24 1 1 .0, or 
ammonia alum, (NH 4 ) a Al 2 (S0 4 ) 4 . 24ILO, the one or the other predomi- 
nating according to the relative cheapness of the alkali salt it con- 
tains. At the present time nothing but ammonia alum is met with, but 
at previous periods potash alum was the salt sold exclusively as "alum." 
Both salts are alike in general appearance and can not be distinguished 
apart by cursory examination. 

Potash alum may be made directly from some minerals, such as the 
"alum Stone" mined in Italy, which contain all the constituents com- 
bined. Ammonia alnm, however, as well as most potash alum, is made 
by the combination of the constituents obtained from different sources. 
The sulphate of alumina is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid 
upon pure clays, and the sulphate of ammonia from the residue of gas- 
works. Solutions of the two salts in proper proportions are mixed 

and the double sail obtained by evaporation ana crystallisation. 

( Jrj Btallized potash <>r ammonia alum contains twenty-four molecules 
ol water, nearly one-half of its weight Tart of this water is lost at as 
low a heat as 60 J < '.. and it Is driven off entirely, though slowly, at LOO 
('. »< Burnt alum*' is simply alum deprived of its water of crystalliza- 
tion, w hicli is generally driven <>if at, about 200° 0. Ammonia alum 
decomposes at 206° 0.: potash alum at a somewhat higher temperature. 



BAKING POWDERS. 569 

Burnt alum is somewhat hygroscopic, but dissolves more slowly iu 
water than the crystallized salt?. 

I have been unable to ascertain in what condition the alum is used for 
compounding baking-powders. Burnt alum would seem to be the form 
best adapted for this purpose on account of its slow solubility. Professor 
Cornwall says this is the form l used, but does not state how he obtained 
the information ; and he states further that u crystallized alums may be 
used in connection with burnt alum to secure at first a more rapid escape 
of carbonic-acid gas." It is probable that the amount of drying given the 
alum used differs with different manufacturers, but it is not likely that 
the water of crystallization is entirely driven off. 

The following equation shows the reaction taking place in a baking- 
powder made with burnt ammonia alum : 

475 504 157 

(NH 4 ) 2 A1 2 (S0 4 ) 4 + 6XaHC0 3 = Al 2 (OH) 6 + 

Sulphate of aluminium Bicarbonate of soda. Hydrate of alum in- 

and ammonia, or inra. 

"burnt alum." 

426 132 264 

3Xa 2 S0 4 4- (NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 + 6C0 2 

Sulphate of soda. Sulphate of am- Carbonic dioxide. 

monia. 

If potash alum were used the reaction would be precisely the same 
with the substitution of potassium for ammonia wherever it occurs in 
the equation, sulphate of potash being formed instead of sulphate of 
ammonia. 

A study of the equation will show that 475 grains of burnt alum with 
504 grains of bicarbonate will produce 2G4 grains of carbonic acid and 
leave a residue consisting of 42G grains of sulphate of soda, 132 grains 
of sulphate of ammonia, and 157 grains of hydrate of aluminium, the 
last named being a precipitate insoluble in water. Sulphate of soda 
crystallizes with ten molecules of water, so that the total weight of resi- 
due from the 07!) grains of mixed chemicals would be 1.255 grains. If 
a hydrated alum is used in the powder, the proportion of residue to 
powder would of course be less, and the proportion of gas evolved 
would also be, less. The character of the residue is seen to be more com- 
plex than is the case with any of the classes previously discussed, and 
deserves special attention. The sulphate of soda is similar to other al- 
kali salts in its physiological action. Sulphate of ammonia is not 
used therapeutically, but probably has an action similar to that of other 
ammonia salts, such as the chloride. Professor Cornwall, 1 in his report, 
speaks as follows concerning this point : 

It is possible, however, that too little attention has been paid to tin- presence of 
a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 salts in the residues from ammonia alum powders. * » * We do know, 
however, thai ammonia salts, in general, are mnofa more Irritating and stimulating 
in their action than the corresponding soda salts, or even than the potash salts. 

For instaiicr, still.'- ami Maisch, speaking <>f ammonium bromide, state that u has a 



1 Report of the Dairy Commissioner of New Jersey, 1888, p. 70, 'Op. oit., p. 77. 



570 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

more acrid taste and is more irritating than potassium bromide. Its unpleasant taste 
and irritating qualities render it less convenient for administration than the bromide 
of potassium. 

We all know how mild a substance ischloride of sodium (commou table salt) ; but 
of ammonium chloride Still6 and Maiseh write: "The direct effects of doses of 5 to 20 
grains of this salt, repeated at iutervals of several hours, are a souse of oppression, 
warmth, and uneasiness in the stomach, some fullness in the head. If it is used for 
many days together in full doses, it disturbs the digestion, coats the tongue, and im- 
pairs the appetite." We have already seen how active a drug carbonate of ammonia 
is, and while, in the absence of proof, it would be rash to assert that sulphate of 
ammonia in five-grain doses is certainly injurious, yet there is abundant ground for 
further investigating its effect before asserting that it is milder in its effects than 
Rochelle salt. It may be that this question of the presence of ammonium salts in 
any considerable quantities in the residues of baking-powders deserves more at- 
tention than it has hitherto received. 

It would seem from the above that there would be considerable differ- 
ence between the physiological effects of potash and ammonia alums 
themselves. Yet the medical authorities make no such distinction. 
Ammonia alum is officinal in the British Pharmacopoeia, and while the 
United States Pharmacopoeia specifies potash alum, the particular form 
met with in trade is entirely determined by the comparative cheapness 
of manufacture. 

The question of the relative harmfulness of these different salts in the 
residues of baking-powders is really one for the physiologist or hygienist 
to decide, not the chemist. Physiological experiments alone can decide 
them positively. 

The consideration of the residue of hydrate of aluminium will be 
taken up later on. 

POWDERS CONTAINING MORE THAN ONE ACID INGREDIENT. 

As might be expected, some powders are met with which have been 
made up with various proportions of different acid ingredients, and 
which belong therefore to more than one of the above -mentioned classes. 
Professor Cornwall speaks as follows concerning some of these mixed 
powders : 

The makers of alum baking-powders sometimes add tartaric acid or bitartrato 
to their powders, either with or without the addition of acid phosphate of lime. 

Thifl is doubtless done with the best intent ions, eit her to seeiuv a more rapid escape 

of carbonic-acid gas at the outset, or otherwise Improve the powder. We have found 

such additions in the ca-e of several of OUT samples, but the presence of tartaric acid 

or tartrates in alum powders is verv objectionable. If added in sufficient quantity 

to otherwise pure alum powders, they prevent the preci pi I a t ion of the ins Julde hy- 
drate of aluminium entirely when the powder is boiled with water, and they may ren- 
der much of the alumina soluble in water even after the bread is inked. Without 
doubt it would then be readily soluble in the digestive organs, prodnoing there the 
effects due to alum or any other soluble aluminium compound. With one of our sam- 
ples we found thai the simple water solution seemed to contain an much alumina as a 
nitric acid solution. In neither ol' these solutions could any ofthe alumina he thrown 

down by a slight excess of ammonia water, although it was readily precipitated from 

the solution, first rendered alkaline with caustic Soda, then slightly acidified with 
acetic acid and boiled with excess of phosphate of soda. 



BAKING POWDERS. 571 

A case in which the character of the powder appears to be improved 
by such mixiug, however, is furnished by the 

ALUM AND PHOSPHATE POWDERS. 

This combination seems to be a favorite one with manufacturers. In 
fact there are now comparatively few " straight" alum powders in the 
market, most of the cheaper grades being made of mixtures in various 
proportions of the alum with acid phosphate of lime. The reaction it 
is intended to obtain is probably the following : 

475 234 336 245 

(Nri 4 ) 2 A1,(S0 4 ) 4 + CaII 4 (P0 4 ) 2 + 4NaB0O 3 = A1 2 (P0 4 ), + 

Ammonia alum. Acid phosphate Bicarbonate of Phosphate of 

of lime. soda. aluminium. 

13G 132 284 176 72 

* CaS0 4 + (JTH 4 ),S0 4 + 2Xa,S0 4 + 4C0 2 + 4H 2 

Sulphate Sulphate of Sulphate of Carbonic- Water, 

of lime. aluminium. soda. dioxide. 

If this equation be compared with the one representing the reaction 
in a powder made with alum alone, on page 5G0, it will be seen that in 
the former the alum goes into the residue as phosphate instead of 
hydrate, and the insoluble sulphate of lime takes the place of one mole- 
cule of sulphate of soda. Otherwise the reactions are similar. This 
reaction will only take place, of course, when the different ingredients 
are mixed in just the proper proportions to produce it. A number of 
variations may be produced by changing the relative proportions of the 
different ingredients. 

THE "ALUM QUESTION." 

The literature upon the subject of the use of alum in baking-powders, 
and upon the question as to its injurious effect upon the health of those 
who consume the bread made from it, is already quite extensive, and if 
quoted entire would fill a fair-sized volume. For the benefit of those 
who may desire to make an exhaustive study of it, 1 will make refer- 
ence to all of the articles bearing upon the subject that have come un- 
der my observation as follows: 

Alum in baking-powder, by Prof. E. GL Patrick.— Scientific American Supplement No. 
;. p. 2940. 

Report of proceedings in the Norfolk baking-powder case (first trial ). — Analyst, 4, p. 
231. 

Norfolk baking-powder case (second trial). — Ibid., 6, p. 21. 

Editorial comment on the case. — Ibid., .">. j,j>. 13 and 34. 

On the action of alum in bread making, by .'. Wesl Knights.— I hid.. ."». p. 87, 

Cereals and the produots and ac< of flour and bread foods, bj E. <>. Lots, 

Ph. ]>.- Second Annual Report StoU Board «/' Health of New York, 1882, p. 

On the solubility of alumina residues from baking-powders, bj Lneins Pitkin. — 
Journal American chemical 8ooiety, 9, j>. 27. 

Experiments npon alum baking-powders and the effects npon digestion of the resi- 
dims left therefrom in bread, by Prof •'• Wi Mallet.— Chemical Newt. 58, pp. 27< 
884. 

5300— pt 5 a 



572 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

As I have previously indicated, the matter of the physiological effect 
of the residues left by baking powders is not properly a chemical prob 
lem. On account of the interest and importance attached to it, how- 
ever, it would seem necessary to give here somewhat of a resume* of the 
subject without attempting to arrive at a definite conclusion, or to set- 
tle, arbitrarily, the question as to whether the sale of certain forms of 
powders should be prohibited. 

For a proper understanding of the alum question it is necessary to 
explain that the use of alum in bread-making is prohibited in countries 
having food adulteration laws, such as England and France. This is 
partly on account of its injurious effect upon the system, but principally 
because of its peculiar action, not yet well understood, in improving 
the color and appearance of the bread to which it has been added, so 
that a flour of inferior grade, or even partially spoiled, may be used to 
make bread which will look as well, to all appearances, as bread made 
from much better grades. 

Blyth ■ speaks as follows of this use of alum in bread : 

Alum is added to bad or slightly damaged flour by both the miller and the baker. 
Its action, according to Liebig, is to render insoluble gluten which has been made 
soluble by acetic or 1 actic acids developed in damp Hour, and it hence stops the undue 
conversion of starch into dextrine or sugar. The influence of alum on health, in the 
small quantities in which it is usually added to bread, is very problematical, and 
rests upon theory more than observation. But notwithstanding the obscurity as to 
its action on the economy there can be no difference of opinion that it is a serious 
adulteration, and not to bo permitted. 

Allen- says: 

Alum, or an equivalent preparation containing aluminium, is by far the most com- 
mon mineral adulterant of bread, though its use has greatly decreased of late years. 
Its action in increasing the whiteness and apparent quality of inferior lloui is un- 
questionable, though the cause of its influence has not been clearly ascertained. 
Whether there be sufficient foundation for the statements made respecting the in- 
jurious effects of alumed bread on the system is still an open question. 

The following is from Hassall: 3 

With reference to the ase of alum, l>r. Dauglish has written : u Its effeot on the sys- 
tem is lhat of a topical astringent Oil the surface of the alimentary canal, producing 
constipation and deranging the process of absorption. Bui its action in centralizing 
t he efficacy of t be digest Lvc solvents is i>\ far the most important and unquestionable. 
The yen Jim pose for which it is used l'.v the baker is the prevention of those early 

stages of solution which spoil t he color and light ncss of thehicad whilst it is being 
prepared, and which it docs most etl'eet iialh ; but it does more than needed, for, 

w hi 1st it prevents solution at a time that la not desirable, it also continues its effects 
when taken Into the stomach, and the consequence is thai a large portion of the 
gluten and other i aluable constituents of the flour are never properly dissolved, but 
pass through the alimentary canal without affording any nourishment whatever." 

The manufacturers of alum baking-powders, however, claim that the 
hydrate of aluminium which islefl in the residue la insoluble in the 



I Is, ( !omposi1 ion and Anal\ si , p. I' 

: (' menial Organic Analysis, I . p. 371. 

■ I, its Adulterations, and the Methods for then Detection, p. 344- 



BAKING POWDERS. 573 

digestive juices, and therefore does not produce the effect which is 
attributed to the soluble forms of alum. Aluminium hydrate is insolu- 
ble in water, but readily soluble in dilute acids, especially when freshly 
precipitated. When heated it gradually loses its water of hydration, 
but does not part with it entirely short of a very high heat. When 
completely dehydrated it is insoluble even in dilute acid. It never 
reaches this condition in baked bread, in which the temperature proba- 
bly never, in the center of the loaf, at least, exceeds 100° 0. 

Phosphate of aluminium is somewhat less soluble in dilute acids than 
the hydrate. In the Xorfolk case an effort was made by the prosecu- 
tion to show that the soluble phosphates contained in the ash of flour 
combined with the alum to form phosphate of aluminium, thus render- 
ing them insoluble in the digestive juices, and depriving the flour of an 
important constituent, and considerable evidence was offered by the 
defense to show that this was not the case. Whether the addition to 
alum powders of sufficient acid phosphate to combine with the aluminium 
present as phosphate was the result of this discussion or not I can not 
say, but it is certain that most of the alum powders now met with are 
made in this way, so that if such a prosecution were to occur to day the 
relative position of the parties would be reversed. It would be to the 
interest of the alum-powder makers to show that phosphate of aluminium 
is insoluble in the alimentary canal. The solubility of these compounds 
in water or dilute acids is, of course, a question readily answered by any 
chemist, but their solubility in the complex and various alimentary fluids, 
and under the conditions of natural digestion in the human body, is quite 
another matter. As might be expected, the testimony which has been 
published upon this point is of the most conflicting character. Professor 
Patrick, experimenting upon cats, found little or no solution of hydrate 
of aluminium. Professor Pitkin, experimenting with gastric juice ob- 
tained from a dog, found some solution, although be used phosphoric 
acid in his powder. Professor Mallet, using an artificial gastric juice, 
found some solution to occur, even with the phosphate, and considerably 
more with the hydrate. It is not difficult to find reasons for such dis- 
agreement in results, for, besides the various character of the solvents 
used and the different conditions prevailing, it is easy to see that even it' 
the hydrate and phosphate of aluminium were themselves entirely in- 
soluble, more or less aluminium would escape the reaction, either from 
imperfect mixing of the powder in the dough or from improper propor- 
tioning Of the different ingredients in the powder itself, so that it would 
go into the residue in the form of the original salt. With powders 
specially prepared, on the other hand, and very carefulh mixed, and 
kneaded up thoroughly with the dough, it might be possible to find 
but a very little dissolved in the digestive fluids under certain con- 
ditions, even though the salts formed were slightly soluble in such 
fluids. 



574 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

From the various evidence that has been produced on both sides of 
the question, I think the following conclusions may be safely drawn: 

(1) That form of alum powder in which sufficient phosphate is added 
to combine with all the aluminium present is abetter form, and less apt 
to bring alum into the system than where alum alone is used. 

(2) It must be expected that small quantities, at least, of alum will 
be absorbed by the digestive fluids where any form of powder contain- 
ing it is used. 

(3) Whether the absorption of small quantities of alum into the hu- 
man system would be productive of serious effects is still an open ques- 
tion, and one that careful physiological experiment alone can decide. 

As the experiments made by Professor Mallet are the most recent on 
this subject I quote here his conclusions. I may say that most of those 
based upon purely chemical work I can indorse, having confirmed many 
in my own work, but I think the evidence furnished by his physiological 
work is hardly sufficient to justify his conclusion as to the harmfuluess 
of such powders. 

GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE CONCLUSIONS REACHED. 1 

The main points which seein to be established by the experiments under discussion 
are, briefly stated, tin: following: 

(a) The greater part of the alum baking-powders in the American market are 
mad-- with alum, the acid phosphate of calcium, bicarbonate of sodium, and starch. 

(b) These powders, as found in retail trade give off very different proportions of 
carbonic-acid gas, and therefore require to be used in different proportion with the 
same quantity of flour, some of the inferior powders in largely increased amount to 
produce the requisite porosity in bread. 

(c) In these powders there is generally present an excess of the alkaline ingredient. 
but this excess varies in amount, and there is sometimes found on the contrary an 
excess of acid material. 

(rf) On moistening with water these powders, even when containing an excess of 
alkaline material, yield small quantities of aluminium ami calcium in a soluble con- 
dition. 

(e) As a consequence of the common employment of calcium-acid phosphate along 
with alum in the manufacture of baking-powders, these, after use in bread-making, 
Leave, at any rate, most of their aluminium in the form of phosphate. When alum 
alone is used the phosphate is replaced by hydroxide. 

(f) The temperature to which the interior of bread is exposed in baking does not 
d -j I-.' P. 

((/) At tin- temperature of 212 1". neither the "water of combination" of 

aluminium hydroxide nor t In- whole of the associated water of either this or the phos- 
phate is removed in baking bread containing these substances as residues from bak- 
ing powder. 
(/<) In doses not very greatly exceeding such quantities as maybe derived from 

bread as commonly used, alumi ninin hydroxide and phosphate produce, or produced 

in experiments upon myself, an Inhibitory effect upon gastric digestion. 

(i) This effect is probably a consequence of the fact that a part of the aluminium 
un nes with the acid of the gastric juice and is takeu op into eolntion, while ;it the 
name time the remainder of the aluminium hydroxide or phosphate throws down in 
Insoluble form the organic substance constituting the peptic ferment. 



Chemical News, 58, 276; also published In pamphlet form, 



BAKING POWDERS. 575 

(A:) Partial precipitation in insoluble form of some of the organic matter of food 
may probably also be brought about by the presence of the aluminium compounds in 
question. 

(I) From the general nature of the results obtained, the conclusion may fairly be 
deduced that, not only alum itself, but the residues which its use in baking-powder 
leaves in bread, can not be viewed as harmless, but must be ranked as objectionable, 
and should be avoided when the object aimed at is the production of wholesome 
bread. 



COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF POWDERS IN RE- 
SPECT TO THEIR RELATIVE AERATING STRENGTH AND THE 
AMOUNT OF RESIDUE LEFT BY EACH. 

The following comparison of the different powders described may- 
prove interesting. It is assumed, of course, that the ingredients are 
combined in exactly the proper proportions, and that all the chemicals 
used are of full purity and strength: 



Powders. 



Tartrate 

Phosphate 

Alum 

Alum and phosphate 



Total resi- 

Carbonk- SSSJtS 
„ ;,i .„„ weight ot 

;uul S* 8 " chemical* 
used. 



Per ct'/i(. Per cent. 
1« 104 



123 
128 

111 



From this it will be seen that a tartrate powder, theoretically, gives 
the lowest percentage of carbonic-acid gas in proportion to the weight 
of chemicals used in its composition, together with the least weight of 
residue; and a straight alum powder gives the highest proportion of 
gas, with the greatest weight of residue. It is assumed that burnt alum 
is used in both the alum and the alum and phosphate powders. The 
residues are calculated to hydrated salts in all cases. No account is 
made of inert "filling." 1 as that would be the same in each case. It 
should of course be remembered ihat in the above calculation the total 
weight of residue is reckoned in each case without regard to solubility 
or relative effect upon the system of the various salts formed. This has 
been sufficiently discossed under the different classes. 

CARBONATE OP AMMONIA. 

This salt is used io some extent as an ingredient in baking-powders. 
It is also often used alone by bakers as a chemical aerating audit. It 
does not necessarily require an acid to set tree its gases, being vola- 
tilized without decomposition simply in heating. The commercial salt, 
familiar to everybody as "smelling-salts," or sal volatile, is obtained by 
subliming a mixture of two parts of chalk and one part of sal ammoniac 



576 FOODS AVD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

or sulphate of ammonia. The salt is then resublimed with the addition 
of some water, and a white semi- transparent mass is obtained, which 
has a strongly aininouiacal smell, and a pungent, caustic taste. It has- 
the composition N^HnQsOs, and consists of a compound of hydrogen am- 
monium carbonate with ammonium carbonate, H(NH 4 )0O 3 -f NH 4 0O 2 
NH 2 . "When heated the salt is wholly dissipated, without charring; 
if the aqueous solution is heated to near 47°C. it begins to lose carbonic- 
acid gas, and at 88° it begins to give off vapor of ammonia." (United 
States Pharmacopoeia.) The question of the propriety of the use of 
this salt in baking does not seem to have received a great deal of atten- 
tion, and opinions differ. Hassall 1 says of it : 

* * * Of these, by far the best is carbonate of ammonia ; this is a volatile salt, 
and its great advantage is that it is entirely or almost entirely dissipated by the heat 
employed in the preparation of the bread ; and thus the necessary effect is produced 
without risk of injurious results ensuing. 

This would doubtless hold good if it were quite certain that the salt 
is entirely driven off by the baking of the bread, for it is a very active 
therapeutic agent, acting as a corrosive poison when taken in sufficient 
amount. The ordinary dose is five grains. Doubtless in the small 
quantities used in baking-powders, and in the presence of other chem- 
icals, there is little danger of its being left in the bread undecomposed, 
but the advisability of its use alone as an aerating agent is open to 
grave doubt. 

COMPOSITION OF BAKING POWDERS AS FOUND IN THE MARKET. 

The following analyses and discussion, by Prof. II. A. ^Yt'ber, form 
a part of the Annual Keport of the Ohio State Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner for 1887 : 

BAKING-POWDERS. 

Much complaint has been made to this commission of tin* character of the baking; 
powders of commerce. It w ae believed by many that then; was a great deal of adult- 
eration and impurity in the ordinary baking-powders used by our people, and that 
the public health was Beriously affected thereby. Recognizing the importance of this 
matter to the health and domestic economy of the people of the state, I gave pnblio 
notice of* in > purpose to invest [gate the purity and health fulness of the various brands 
of the baking-powders of commerce, [sought all possible information on this sub- 
ject, and collected and submitted to analysis by the State chemist thirty brands of 
baking-powders, such as I found on sale in many sections <d* the state. In September 
the resull of these investigations and analyses was published In an official circular 
for the benefit of the consumers of this class of goods. There was no thought, wish, 
or purpose upon the pari of this commission to aid <>r t<> defeat the enterprise of any 

manufacturer of these goods. Indeed, we had not any possible intimation as to what 

the analysis would show in any particular brand until the work was accomplished. 
There was simply the impartial purpose to inform the pnblio as to the chemical com- 
position of the several brands sold by the trade throughout the State, so that with 
the knowledge of the facts they might not claim that they were being defrauded or 
imposed upon, but be able intelligently to choose the goods they deemed most health- 



1 Page 345. 



BAKING POWDERS. 577 

ful and desirable. This circular with its analysis has attracted so much attention 
throughout the State and country and is of such significance as to demand a place in 
this report, and it is therefore given here in full. 

Circular No. 6.— Baking-Powders. 

This commission has been for some months investigating the baking-powders of 
commerce most generally used and sold in this State. And we herein submit to the 
people of the State the result of that investigation. 

We have analyzed thirty brands of baking-powder, seeking those brands which 
were apparently most generally sold throughout the State. We submit the result of 
these analyses to the people who are the consumers of such goods that they may know 
the true chemical character of these several varieties. 

It is generally supposed that there is a vast deal of " adulteration " in baking-pow- 
der, but since there is at law no standard of excellence or purity in baking-powder, 
it is difficult to say what is an adulteration, unless it be an unhealthful ingredient. 

As a matter of fact, any powdered composition that is healthful and which in solu- 
tion in moist dough will generate carbonic-acid gas and " raise " bread, or cause it to 
be porous and light, may be properly called a baking-powder. And accordingly we 
find very many varieties or brands of baking-powders on the market made from 
widely-different materials. 

The best baking-powder is, of course, that in which (the ingredients being health- 
ful) the largest amount of carbonic gas is generated to the spoonful of powder, and 
the least amount and least hurtful character of the resultant salt remains in the 
bread. 

For an intelligent view of the whole field we classify these varieties into three 
general divisions. In each of these the active agents of the compound arc kept dry, 
and thus free from fermentation in the package, by the use of a given per cent, of 
starch, wheat flour, or rice flour. These are used simply as dry filling to keep the 
chemical agents from acting upon each other in the package. 

In this classification we have — 

(1) Cream of tartar baking-powders. 

(21 Phosphate baking-powders. 

(3; Alum baking-powders. 

The chemical formula and the percentages of the active agents vary with each 
brand. But generally stated we have in the 

FIRST CLASS. 

Bicarbonate oY soda, (Changed by chemical action in the dough to the double salt of 
Starch or flour > tartrate ot potassium and sodium, and carbonic-acid gas. 

The cream of tartar and bicarbonate of soda, dissolved by the water or moisture in 
the dough, unite chemically and form in the bread the double salt of tartrate of 
potassium and sodium, and carbonic-acid gas, the latter escaping in the baking 
heat. 

SECOND CLASS. 

Acid calcium phosphate, ),,i i i u i , • *_ 

Bicarbonate of soda (Changed by chemical action into calcium phosphate, 
Starch OI flour S ,so<llum Phosphate, and carbonic-acid gas, 

THIRD CLASS. 

Ammonium alum, ) .,, , , , , . . , .... 

Bicarbonate of soda 'Changed by chemical action into hydrate ot aluminium, so- 
Starch or flour ' S | M |im8,l lP n *te, ammonium sulphate, and carbonic-acid gas. 

In .sou if brands Of the cream <>f tartar 1 taking- powder a small per cent, of carbonate 
of ammonia is used ; but this Is considered t.. be too small an amount to be bortfal. 
There is a prevalent belief created bj tin- erroneous statement of manufacturers, that 
the salts from which carbonic-acid gas is generated pass off in the form of escaping 
\ leaving a trace of their presence in the bread. Hut this is not true. 
These resultant salts formed by the chemical action in the dough remain in the 
bread, while the lms generated by such chemical action, and which is ion a small per 
cent of the u hole, alone passes offin the process ot' baking. 

from this fa.t maii\ persons condemn the entire class of alum baking o >wd< I 
being unhealthful. Pure alum is undoubtedly a hurtful salt, and the resultant 



578 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

from its combination with soda can scarcely be less hurtful. And yet this is a ques- 
tion about which " doctors disagree ; " any number of conflicting 'opiuious and cer- 
tificate can be had from eminent chemists on either side of this question. 

The official investigation of this class of baking-powders made in England to test 
their healtbfnlness resulted in their favor. But this conclusion rested open the 
statement of chemists that the resultant salt of hydrate of aluminium remaining in 
the bread was insoluble, and hence nnhnrtfnl when taken into the stomach. But 
some of the ablest chemists of this country declare that hydrate of aluminium is quite 
soluble, and hence is as hurtful as the alum in other forms. So that tin* question is 
yet an open one to be determined by further careful scientific investigation. 

As to the general health fulness oi cream of tartar aud phosphate Baking-powders 
when properly used, there is but little difference of opinion; but an intelligent 
knowledge of their strength and freshness and of the manner and rapidity of the 
chemical combinations in the process of bread-making is necessary to the baker in 
order to insure good bread. 

These thirty brands were analyzed very carefully by Prof. H. A. Weber, State 
chemist at Columbus, Ohio, and are such as are generally sold throughout the State. 
The condition of some of these brands was not such as to show them at their best 
advantage, since some were old while others were fresh. But since they were bought 
in the open market without discrimination, they fairly present what the consumer 
must buy. 

S. H. Hurst, 
Ohio Dairy and Food Commissioner. 
General S. H. Hurst, 

Ohio Dairy and Food Commissioner : 

BlB : The following is a complete report of the analyses of baking-powders received 
June:} and July 7, 1887: 

The list, as will be seen from the analyses, includes three kinds of baking-pow- 
ders, in which the acid principle is respectively cream of tartar, acid phosphate of 
calcium, and alum. 

The carbonic acid evolved with water was determined with great care, and from 
this the amount of bicarbonate of soda and the acid principle was calculated accord- 
ing to well-known reactions. 

The starch, or as in some cases the flour, was determined directly, due allowance 
being made in case of the alum powders for the loss of water of the aluminium hy- 
droxide in the dried residue upon ignition. 

Accidental impurities of commercial drugs were not taken into account, as they 
would be very small and unimportant in case of the alum powder, while in the cream 
of tartar powder the ingredients used were found in the course of analysis to be prac- 
tically pure. 

The excess of bicarbonate of soda or of the acid principle was determined volu- 
ineiricall.v and added, as the case might be, to the results obtained by calculation. 

Respectfully submitted. 

H. A. Weber, 
Chemist. 

Analyses of Baking-Powders. 

cream of tartar baking-powders. 

1. Hoyul. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 11.80 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 

( Iream of tartar 50.44 

Starch 17. 10 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc — 7.85 

100.00 

Thii powder contained a small percentage of ammonium carbonate, w hich was cal- 
culated a- bioarbonatc of soda above. 

2. Dr. l'n 

Carbonic-acid gas, 10.60 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 21.14 

Cream of tartar 44.90 

Starch 81.30 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc 18.66 

100. 00 



BAKING POWDERS. 579 

3. Pear soil's. 

Carbonic -acid gas, 11.60 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 23. 24 

Cream of tartar 49- 57 

Starch 12.80 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc 14. 39 

100. 00 
This sample contained ammonium carbonate. 

4. Cleveland's. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 12.80 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda ! 26. 12 

Cream of tartar 54. 70 

.Starch 9.00 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc 10. 18 

100. 00 
5. Snoic Drift. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 10.60 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 20.24 

Cream of tartar 4-. 62 

Starch 13. 00 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc 17. 54 

100. 00 

6. Upper Ten. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 11.30 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 21.57 

Cream of tartar 48. 31 

Starch , 20.00 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc 9.22 

100.00 

7. De Land's. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 10.00 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda.. 19.09 

Cream of tartar 48.39 

Starch 0.00 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moisture, etc 32. 52 

100.00 

This powder contained no filling. 

8. Sterling. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 11.00 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 21.84 

Cream of tartar 17.03 

Starch 18.50 

Tartrate of potassium and sodium, moist u re, etc 18.63 

100. 00 
PHOSPHATIC BAK1NG-POWDZR8. 

9. Hbrt/ortPs. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 13.00 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 27. :'. i 

Free phosphoric acid 14.47 

Starch 21.80 

Insoluble ash | oaloinm phosphate, oalciam carbonate, etc.) I 

Sodium phosphate, moisture, etc It'.. 99 

100. 00 



580 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

10. Wheat. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 4.00 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 9.32 

Free phosphoric acid 4.45 

Starch 0.00 

Insoluble asb (calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, etc.) '2(5. 90 

Sodium pbospbate, moisture, etc 59. XI 



100. 00 
Tbis sample contained no filling and was badly caked. 

ALUM BAKING-POWDERS. 

11. Empire. 

Carbouie-acid gas, 5.80 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 11. 08 

Alum 10. 41 

Starch 44.25 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulpbate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 34. 'JO 



100. 00 
12. Gold. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6.70 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 13. 03 

Alum 12. 03 

Starch 44. 00 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium, sulphate, moisture, etc 20. 34 



100. 00 
i3. Veteran. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6.90 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 14.66 

Alum 12. 13 

Starch 49.85 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 23. 36 

100. 00 
14. Cook's Favorite. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 5.80 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 11. 92 

Alum 10.41 

Starch 42.75 

Hydrate- of alumina, sodium sulpbate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 34.99 

100. 00 
15. Sunflower. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6.30 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 14.44 

Alum LI. 31 

Starch 38. 65 

Hydrate ol alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc — 35.60 

100. 00 
16. Krn ton. 

Carbcric-acid gas, 6.20 pei cent. 

Bicarbonate 12. 59 

A I II HI 11.11 

Starch 'M L0 

Hydrate of alumina, sodinm sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc — 38. 17 

100. 00 



BAKING POWDERS. 581 

17. Patapsco. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 12.30 

Alum 10.77 

Starch 36.85 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 40.08 

100. 00 
18. Jersey. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 10.40 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 20. 70 

Alum 19.05 

Starch 44.20 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 16. 05 

100. 00 

19. Buckeye. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6.90 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 13. 82 

Alum 12.13 

Starch 14.30 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 29. 85 

100. 00 

20. Peerless. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 7 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 14. 21 

Alum 12. 94 

Starch 46.57 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 26. 28 

100. 00 
21. Saver Star. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6.90 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 14. 66 

Alum 12.13 

Starch .• 41.33 

Hydrate of alumiua, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 31.88 

100. 00 
22. Crown. 

Carbonic acid gas, 8.40 per cent. , 

Bicarbonate of soda 16.88 

Alum 15.08 

Starch 51. :;."» 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 16. 69 

100. 00 
23. Crown (marked " Special"). 

Carbonic-acid gas, £.60 per cent. 
Bicarbonate of soda 18. 10 

Alum 15, M 

Starch 41.37 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulpha to, amnion in in sulphate, moist are, etc 

100.00 
24. 0m Spoon. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 5.75 per cent. 
Bioarbonate of Boda 12. 66 

Alum 

Starch 

Hydrate of alumina, sod in in sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 

1UU. 00 



582 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

25. Wheeler's Xo. 15. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 11.35 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda ±2. 51 

Alum 20.38 

Starch 29. 38 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc J7. 73 

100. 00 

26. Carlton. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 6.60 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 13. 44 

Alum 11.85 

Starch 4:?. 77 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 30.94 

100. 00 
27. Gem. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 8.45 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 16.13 

Alum 15. 17 

Starch 3-2.13 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 36. 57 

100. 00 
28. Scioto. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 8.80 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda 16. 80 

Alum 15.80 

Starch 49.15 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 18. 25 

100. 00 
29. Zipp's Grape Crystal. 

( ;u lxmic-acid gas, 10.90 per cent. 

Bicarbonate of soda ^"i. 49 

Alum 19.57 

Starch 45.95 

Hydrate <>f alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moisture, etc 11. 99 

100. 00 

30. Forest City. 

Carbonic-acid gas, 7.80 per cent. 

Bicarbonate <>t soda 15. 73 

Alum 13.63 

Starch 46.60 

Hydrate of alumina, sodium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, moist u re. etc 24.04 

100. 00 
Since the Issuance <>f the foregoing circular the manufacturers of certain of these 

brands of baking-powders have sought to pervert the facts brought out by these 

analyses, and, by arguments and conclusions wholly unwarranted by the facts stated. 
or by the principles of ohemioal science, have fortheipown benefit held and assumed 

that the circular and analysis show a state of tacts which they do not show , and lead 
to COnclnsions to Which they do not had. Nevertheless, the truth will asscit itself, 
and this investigation and discussion, which is still going on, will throw a Hood of 
light on this whole field of commercial food products that will be of incalculable 
benefit to thr people Of the State. 



BAKING POWDERS. 583 

Professor Weber's analyses are rather superficial and incomplete, 
probably being made under conditions that did not admit of thorough 
quantitative work. He has overlooked entirely, for instance, the fact 
of the presence of phosphoric acid in many alum powders. 

PROFESSOR CORNWALL'S REPORT ON BAKING-POWDERS. 

Following are the results of an examination of a large number of bak- 
ing-powders by Prof. H. B. Cornwall, together with his description of 
the methods of analysis employed, and his observations and conclu 
sions. 1 

METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 

The analysis was directed toward determining the " strength" of the powders, or 
their yield of carbonic-acid gas, and their composition, so far as to indicate the 
nature of the chief active constituents. No great importance was attached to the 
amount of starch or other legitimate " filling," which only has an etfect on the 
strength of the powder, nor was it possible to examine so large a number of samples 
minutely as to the residues left by them. Especial attention was therefore paid to 
the presence of possible objectionable constituents of the residues,aud to ingredients 
that might reuder the use of the powders injurious. 

Carbonic-acid gas. — This was determined with great care by boiling 1 gram (15.43 
grains) of the powder with 125 to 130 cubic centimeters (about 4^ fluid ounces) of dis- 
tilled water in a roomy flask, connected with a Classen condensing, drying, and 
absorbing apparatus (Classen, Quantitative Chemische Analyse, 1865), the carbon di- 
oxide being absorbed in soda-lime tubes, of which there were two, haviug their fur- 
ther ends charged with carefully-dried chloride of calcium. The contents of the flask 
were boiled, with proper use of aslow current of air, for one and one-half to oue and 
three-quarters hours, and the current of air was kept up for half an hour after remov- 
ing the flame, so that the whole operation Listed from two to two and one-half hours. 
Only in this way was the carbonic-acid gas with certainty to be expelled from the 
somewhat viscid, starchy water solution and completely carried over iuto the ab- 
sorption tubes. 

Tested before the analyses were begun, with a sample of probably one of the best 
commercial bicarbonate* of soda in the market, the absorption apparatus yielded 
51.38 percent, of carbon dioxide; measurement of the gas (see below) indicating 51.44 
per cent. 

Tested in the course of the series of analyses by decomposing Iceland spar (crystal- 
lized carbonate of lime) with citric acid in the presence of starch, in the proportion 
used in the average of good cream of tartar baking-powders, the absorption apparatus 
showed 43.83 per cent., theory requiring, for absolutely pure carbonate of lime, 44 
per cent. 

As a check analysis, when it could be properly done, the gas evolved from the pow- 
der by 10 cubic centimeters of a mixture of one volume of hydrochloric arid, Bpeeiflo 
gravity 1.2, with two volumes of water, in a Scheibler's evolution bottle, vrasoolleoted 
over mercury and measured, correction being made for atmospheric pressure, tem- 
perature, and moisture, and also an allowance for the carbon dioxide retained by acid 
of the strength used, as determined by tests with the Iceland spar. Enough baking- 
powder was taken to give DO to 110 cubic centimeters of gas. The resultfl bj measure- 
ment averaged 0.12 per cent, below tln.se by absorption and Weighing of the gas, 

probably on account of the difficulty of liberating the gas, even by violent shaking, 

from the somewhat viscid liquid produced by the action of the strongly arid solution 
on the starch of Hour. The greatest difference by the two methods w m 0,29 per rent. 

Whenever s sample showed a rather low percentage of oarbonlo-aeid gas, or left a 



l Keportof the Dairy Commissioner of New Jersey, 1868, p, -J. 



584 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

decidedly alkaline solution, duplicate tests were made by the soda-lime absorption, 
and no dependence was placed on measurement, but in other cases it was a most con- 
venient and reliable check on the other method. 

$ul2)hate8.— These were detected in the cold-water solution of the baking-powder, 
bearing in mind the possible solvent action of citric acid on the barium sulphate. 
No attention was paid to minute quantities of soluble sulphates. 

Ammonia salts. — These were detected by rubbing the powders with water and 
slaked lime, after ascertaining that ordinary samples of rlour gave no reaction for 
ammonia under the conditions of our tests. No notice was taken of ammonia unless 
the turmeric paper was rapidly and decidedly colored. 

Phosphates. — It was found that even in the presence of tartaric acid these could 
gem rally be detected by means of ammonium inolybdate in the solution of the pow- 
der in very dilute nitric acid. In cases of doubt, the powder was iirst fused with car- 
bonate of soda and nitrate of potash. 

Alumina.— Although it could always be detected in the solution of the powder in 
very dilute nitric acid, at least, by the aid of acetic acid and phosphate of soda, ^et 
all of the powders were also tested by fusion with carbonate of soda and nitrate of pot- 
ash, extraction with boiling water, acidifying the filtered solution with hydrochloric 
acid and precipitating with ammonia water. The alumina in the precipitate was 
identified as such, however obtained. During the fusion abundant evidence of the 
presence of iron compounds as an impurity in the alum powders was frequently ob- 
tained, showing carelessness or ignorance on the part of the makers. 

Tartaric acid and tartrates. — Free tartaric acid was dissolved out by absolute alco- 
hol and identified. Tartrates were systematically tested for in case of doubt, but, in 
general, it was deemed sufficient to confirm their presence by shaking the powder with 
ammonia water, filtering, adding a crystal of nitrate of silver, and heating gently to 
form the characteristic silver mirror. It was found that phosphates and citrates did 
not interfere with this test when any considerable quantity of tartrates was also 
present in the solution, but it was depended on only as confirmation of the presence 
of tartrates in the cream of tartar powders. 

Potash. — This was detected by holding some of the powder on a platinum wire in 
the Bunsen-burner flame and observing the flame coloration through a solution of 
permanganate of potash so strong as scarcely to transmit diffused daylight. Unless 
a decided red flame coloration was obtained, potash was certainly absent in any nota- 
ble quantity. 

RESULTS OF ANALYSIS. 

The following tables give the results of the analysis of our samples, so far as was 
wry to classify them and determine their "strength," that is, the percentage of 
Carbonic-acid gas. The cubic inches of gas are given from 1 ounce avoirdupois of 
powder, ftl a temperature of 60 P., and barometer at 30 inches: 

I. Cream of tartar powders. — In this olass are placed all powders giving reactions 

for tartaric acid and potash, and free from phosphates, alumina, and au\ considerable 

quantity of soluble sulphates. Ammonia was sometimes present j whether as seaqui- 

oarbonate or bitartrate was uot determined. Free tartaric acid was found in one 

ii> presence has no effect on the whole* mesa of the powder, nor has the 

small amount of ammonia in any case found. The writer's experience is that the 

powders free from ammonia compounds yield just as light biscuits, etc., as the others. 

As regards purity of materials, then Seems little choice between the higher grades 
of t lies.- powders. , 

II. dcid pkosphaU of time powder 8. —The first two of these wen packed in tightly- 

BOrked glass bottles, and contained enough starchy material to keep them from deteri- 
orating in t best hot t ics. 
The bread preparatl lonsisted of two separate powders, each in a paper pack* 

bicarbonate <»f soda, the other acid phosphate of lime mixed with 

starch. The strength was determined on a mixture of the two in the proportions 
directed on the pack;: 



BAKING POWDERS. 



585 



The wheat powder was put up in tin boxes, without starch or other filling. One 
sample was in excellent order, the other much caked. 

III. Alum and phosphate powders. — This class embraces powders showing ammonia, 
soluble sulphates, alumina, and phosphates, when tested as already described. 

A few showed potash reactions, and in some there was evidence of tartaric acid or 
some other substance reducing silver abundantly from ammoniacal solutions. In such 
cases, of course, potash alum and bitartrate of ammonium may have been present, 
or the reactions may have been caused by cream of tartar, or by free tartaric acid. 
The possible combinations are very numerous, and the analysis, however complete, 
will not always indicate the exact combination. Inasmuch as some of these powders 
showed considerable alumina in the simple water solution, a more detailed examina- 
tion of them is recommended, for the reasons already given. The actual presence of 
acid phosphate of lime, or of any other acid phosphate, was not proven, but all con- 
tained some phosphate, and have therefore been classed as indicated, although prob- 
ably in every case they were made with acid phosphate of lime. 

As already mentioned, the low grade of several is, perhaps, from deterioration, due 
to the presence of the acid phosphate in packages not sufficiently air-tight. Acid phos- 
phate will not keep well when mixed with bicarbonate of soda, except in well-corked 
bottles. Tin cases are not tight enough. 

Many of these powders contained sulphate of lime, chemically equivalent to terra 
alba. This was, perhaps, in no case added as an adulterant, but was a part of the 
acid phosphate of lime used; the latter not having been separated from the sulphate 
of lime formed in its manufacture. The presence of this sulphate of lime must be 
regarded as objectionable. None of these powders are as strong as they might be 
made, and most of them are very deficient in strength. Apart from questions of 
healthfulness, there can be no economy in buying some of these powders. 

IV. Alum powders.— Here are classed the powders showing the same reactions as 
the preceding class, but free from phosphates. All appeared to be ammonia alum 
powders, but reactions for potash and tartaric acid were not wanting among them. 
Only one of them begins to come up to the strength which a " straight n burnt am- 
monia alum powder might have. 

V. Unclassed powders.— The composition of these will be indicated under the special 
remarks. 

I. — Cream of tartar powders. 



No. 



Brand. 



The Best . 

Sea Foam 

Sterling .. 
Health ... 



Health 

None Such 
Cleveland's 
' leveland'a 



41 Royal , 

\i Royal 

4."> Price's "( Iream " 

63 Prioe a "Cream " 

aVrerage, - brandi 





Cubic inches 




Carbonic- 

aci.l [ 


d&rbonic- 

;u-i<l gas pet 

0U1H ■<•. 


Remarks. 


Bl /• <; ,,t. 






11.60 


107.3 




10. M 


LOO 5 


Fields a little ammonia and 
soluble sulphate. 


11.70 


106.2 


Fields ammonia reactions. 


ti. M 




Final reaction <>t aqueoai 
solution strongly alkaline. 
1 1 emarka. 


7.25 


87. 1 




L2.04 


116. Q 




1*27 


122. 7 


• «1 in .June. 




127 - 


• .1 in Nn\ ember. 


U.M 


125.48 


Vi. ill- ammonia reactions. 

B(l in M.i\ . 


U M 




Fields amnion i reset i"iis. 

•iilur. 


U.80 


110 5 


Rec< iv ed In Ma\ < tontaina 
free tai tarh 


12.20 


111 I 


Re< <-i\ < <i in December. 



Excluding -".» am) 

. ... i . ■ nt. .'i car 
bon'.i 



586 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
II. — Acid phosphate of lime powder*. 



No. 


Brand. 


Carbon ic- 
acid gas. 


Cubic inches 

carbonic- 

acid km i" i 

ounce. 


Eemarks. 


46 




1\ ■/■ cent 

14.9:» 

14.01 

13.51 
13.89 
15.39 

15.62 
5.83 


138.3 
129.6 

125.0 
128. 5 
142.4 

lit. - 
53.9 




54 




6-onnoe glass bottle. 


47 




year. A. little ^a> esoaiied 

on opening the-4-onnce bot- 
tle. 

I: e i i v cil in M a y. In 
8-oum-e glaea bottle. 

B e <■ e i v id in August, la 
8-oimco glass bottle. 

Received in August Bi- 
oarbonate soda and arid 
phosphate pn) ap in seji- 
arate papers. T li e arid 
phosphate was not quite 
cree from soluble sul- 
phates. 

In tin box : in good order. 

In tin box | much caked. 


48 
49 

21 


Ku in ford's Yeast Powder 

Horsford's Bread Preparation 

Wheat 


52 


Wheat 



Note. — Since the rapidity with which a baking-powder gives off carbonic-aoid gas 
in the cold varies with the ingredients used, it was deemed worth while t<> test some 
powders as follows: Forty-five grains (3 grams) of each was mixed with as little 
shaking as possible with | ounce (5 cubic centimeters) of water, and the volume of 
gas evolved in five minutes was measured. 

Per cent. 

Cleveland's yielded of its carbonic acid 49. 6 

Royal 3 Eelded of its carbonic acid 45.6 

Horsford's yielded of its carbonic acid 68. B 

A " straight " burnt alum powder yielded of its carbonic acid 6. .1 

III. — Alum and phosphate powder*. 



No. 



Brand. 



Patapeoo 

Washington 

Wa# bington 

Davis's <>. E 

McDowell s (i. and .1 

Lincoln 

Kenton 



11 State 

15 Stab 
19 On Top 

16 Pel fe< tion 



Silvei Star 
Oar < ►* n 
White 

Soi.n iMlle 

' . i ape . . . . 
Sovereign . 



a. and r (Atlantic and Pacific) 

iii^^in^ 





Brooks and licQeorge 

Benkel's 



brands 



Carbonic- 
acid gas. 



Per cent. 
- 

8.81 
9. 97 

9.70 
71 

7.01 



6. To 

8.42 
!» 17 
5.09 



'.». 51 
in. 17 
10.09 

10 09 

>. 97 

11. 80 

10. 10 

10. -i 






Cubic inches 

cai liollie 

acid gas per 
ounce. 



77 o 

92 2 
83. 2 

8'.i. 7 
90. 
84.8 



62.0 

77 9 

17. 1 

77. 9 
81 7 

89 B 

8] :: 
KM B 
81.1 
M 
84 7 



Remarks. (All give ammo- 
nia reactions.) 



■ «1 in Ma\ . 

Received in No\ ember. 



R< ceivi d in October. An* 

Other sample tin ived in 

M.i\ gai e 3.81 p< r ci at. 
Reci h ed In « Ictooer. 
Kcm eived la afa~j 

in pasteboard box w itli tin 
ends. 



lie. . h ed in September. 
Received in December. 



BAKING POWDERS. 
IV. — Alum poicders. 



587 



No. 



Brand. 



8 Miles's "Prize" 

20 Four Ace 

26 Feather Weight 

36 One Spoon 



Carbonic- 
acid gas. 



Per cent. 
9.63 

10.31 
9.63 
16.77 



Cubic inches 

carbonic - 

acid gas per 

ounce. 



95.4 

89.1 

155.1 



Remarks. ( All show ammo- 
nia reactions.) 



Shows potash reactions and 
reduces silver abundantly. 



Two other samples gave re- 
spectively 15.35 and 16.73 
per cent. 



V. — Unclossed poxcders. 



No. 


Brand. 


Carbonic- 
acid gas. 


Cubic inches 

carbonic- 
acid gas per 
ounce. 


Remarks. 


6 




Per cent. 

8.14 

8.00 

6.15 


75.3 

74.0 
56.9 


Shows potash and ammonia 
reactions, and reduces sil- 
ver abundantly. 


22 




18 




compound. See special re- 
marks. 






contains much soluble sul- 
phates, and some free tar- 
taric acid. 



SPECIAL REMARKS. 

Sample No. 6. — This sample shows strong reactions for ammonia, soluble sulphates, 
soda, and potash. Its aqueous solution, rendered ammoniacal before Altering, reduces 

silver from ;i crystal of the nitrate, as a bright coating on the glass. It would have 
been classed among the cream of tartar powders had it not shown altogether too much 
soluble sulphates. Shaken with absolute alcohol it renders this slightly alkaline; 
boiled with water the powder gives a decidedly alkaline solution. It contains some 
alumina. 

Sample No. 18. — This gave strong reactions for ammonia, soluble sulphates, soda, 
and potash. Tartaric acid was extracted from it by shaking with absolute alcohol. 
It may contain some cream of tartar. bu1 has too much soluble sulphates to warrant 
placing it among the cream of tartar powders. 

Sample No. 2*2.— This powder gave strong reactions for alumina, soluble sulphates, 
and soda. Neither potash nor ammonia was present The label stated that il con- 
tained grape (tartaric t) and orange (citric f) acids, combined "with natron, bicarb. 

soda, and corn stan-h," and the analysis indicated the presenoe of tartrates and cit- 
rates, as well as much alumina, which was abundantly found in the aqueoDS solution 

Of the powder even after boiling with the undissolved residue. Alumina in a soluble 
form was also extracted in considerable quantity by water alone from bread made 

with this powder. Apparently, the organic acids kepi it in soluble condition. Since 

neither potash nor ammonia was present, the alumina appears t<> ha\ e been added in 
the shape Of sulphate of alumina, or else of soda alum. 

After Washing away the starchy matter with chloroform an.l examining the residue 

under the mioroseope in polarised light, crystalline fragments of a singly refracting 
substance wen observed in abundance, together with doubly refracting crystalline 
§360— pt. 5 3 



588 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

materials. Although no octahedral crystals could be distinctly made out, yet there 
were some fragments of soda alum, which is as good as any other alum for making 
baking-powders, so far as chemical and physiological effects are concerned. It is 
more likely to be affected by moisture than " burnt alum." 

Sample Xo. 29. — This powder was very strongly alkaline, containing so great an 
excess of bicarbonate (or carbonate) of soda that if the proper amount of cream of 
tartar had been used the powder would have yielded about 11 per cent, of carbouic- 
acid gas. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

Our investigations show that while especially the higher grades of cream of tartar 
and acid phosphate of lime powders are maintained at a quite uniform standard of 
excellence, the State is flooded, also, with many baking-powders of very poor quality — 
cheap goods, poorly made. Of the thirty-nine brands examined, twenty-five contain 
alum or its equivalent, in the shape of some soluble alumina compound ; eight are 
cream of tartar powders, with small quantities of other ingredients in several cases; 
four are acid phosphate of lime powders ; two belong properly under none of the 
above classes. 

With one exception, the powders containing alum all fall below the average 
strength of the cream of tartar powders, and in the majority of cases they fall much 
below the better grades of the cream of tartar powders. 

In the cream of tartar and the acid phosphate of lime powders, no indications of 
substances likely to be injurious to health, in the quantities used, have been found. 

More evidence against the use of alum in baking-powders might have been pre- 
sented, but it won Id have been of a similar nature to that which has already been given. 
In the writers opinion, the presence of alum in baking-powders is objectionable, 
since, under certain conditions, it may exert an injurious effect on the digestion. 
The effects may not be very marked in the case of any individual consumer, but that 
they can be induced to a greater or less extent seems to be well established. 

There appears to he ample ground for requiring that the makers of baking-powders 
should publish the ingredients used in their powders, in order that the consumer, 
who may justly have doubts of the desirability of using certain kinds, may be pro- 
tected. At present the only guaranty of an undoubtedly wholesome and efficient 
article, appears to be the name of the brand. 

Moreover, since it is quite possible to put up the baking-powders in such a way as 
to preserve their strength very thoroughly, and since it is evident that many makers 
fail in this respect, it would not seem unreasonable to require that baking-powders 
should not be sold unless they will yield a oertain percentage of carbonio-acid gas. 

The bad effects Of the "heavy" food prepared With some of the baking-powders 
among Onr samples must certainly be felt by those who use them, and who are \et 

too ignorant t<> know where the trouble lies. It is for this class especially that nearly 
all legislation relating to securing good food ami drugs is enacted. 

since it is evident that s«»me of the alum powders are so prepared as to increase 

the extent of any injurious effect, owing to the mixture of ingredients whose combi- 
nation can not be justified on any grounds, it is recommended th.it a special and 
more thorough examination of Mich be made, with a view to preventing their inan- 
ufaet lire. 

APPENDIX. 

1. In bread made from Orange baking-powder, page — , according to direct ions, 

there u.is found, in a condition readily soluble in tepid water, alumina equivalent to 
ains of crystallized ammonia alum per 2-pound loaf 

2. With reference to Professor Patrick's experiments on oats, the writer had bis- 
cuit made with a "straight" alum baking-powder, using twelve times the proper 

at ml Of the powder. The biscuit had a hitter, nauseating taste, ami must have 

been verv indigestible, BO that no fair conclusions OOUld be drawn from its use. 



BAKING POWDERS. 589 



ANALYSES BY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

The samples for the following analyses were all purchased at retail 
stores in Washington, D. C, by an agent of the Department, no intima- 
tion being given to the seller of the purpose for which they were in- 
tended. The city was pretty thoroughly gone over, and the samples 
probably include about all the different brands sold. 

METHODS OF ANALYSIS. 

Followiug are detailed descriptions of the methods followed in the 
analyses made in this laboratory. In many of the estimations different 
methods were tried, and the one which gave the best results and was 
fouud to be most convenient was chosen. 

GENERAL EXAMINATION OF SAMPLES. 

The qualitative and general examination is described in the extract 
from Professor Cornwall's report above, and it is not necessary to go 
into it in detail again, as the methods were similar, generally speaking. 
The qualitative examination and assignment of a sample to one of the 
classes indicated presents no special difficulties. If it is desired to 
know the character of the filling used, it is readily ascertained by a 
microscopical examination; but this is rather iu unimportant matter. 
A determination of the alkalimetry of the watery solution of the powder 
is useful as showing whether any great excess of alkali had been used. 

ESTIMATION OF CARBONIC ACID. 

This is one of the most important estimations, as it determines the 
strength of the powder. It was made by absorption with soda lime, 
and a form of apparatus was used that has served for some time in this 
laboratory for the determination of carbonic acid. This apparatus lias 
recently been somewhat modified and greatly Improved in compactness 
by Mr. A. B. Knorr. It is shown in the accompanying figure. Follow- 
ing is Mr. Knorr's description : ! 

The apparatus proper, as represented by the oat, consists of a ilask A in which the 
carbon dioxide ia b I free. A condenser I> is ground into the neck of this flask ami 
condenses the Bteaui formed when the liquid in A is boiled in order to secure complete 
expulsion of the u r a^- The reservoir B contains the acid required for the operation, 

and has a soda -lime guard (' ground into it to retain the carbonic acid of the air, a 
constant current of which is aspirated through Q during the whole operation. The 

stem of the resen oir ia ground into the oondenser, or it may be conveniently blown 

into one piece with it. The caihonic acid is dried in K and Anally absorbed in the 
weighed potash lmlh F. 

Two determinations of carbonic acid were made on earli sample — one 
by the addition of acid to determine the total amount of carbonate pres- 



l Jour, Analyt. ('hem.. :;. 



590 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ent, and one by the addition of water only. The per cent, of carbonic- 
acid found in the latter estimation may properly be termed the available 
amount present in the powder, as it is the quantity which would be act- 
ually liberated by the acid ingredient of the powder when it is used in 
baking, and therefore represents the actual value of the powder for 
aerating purposes, so iar as the evolution of gas is concerned. 




v/ SCHOLL^a* 



Fig. 26. 



For the determination of the total CO, the procedure was as follows : 
Place in a short glass tube, the weight of which is known, about 1 to 2 
grains of the sample, and weigh the whole as quickly as possible, the 
amount taken being obtained by difference. The tube and contents are 
gently dropped into the generating llask of the apparatus, which must 

be perfectly dry. The flask is closed with the stopper carrying the tube 

connecting with the absorption apparatus, and also the funnel tube, 
which has been previously provided with 1<> cubic centimeters of dilute 

sulphuric acid for the liberation of the gas. When all parts of the ap- 
paratus are connected, and seen to be tight, the Stopper of the tunnel 
tube is Opened, and the aeid allowed to run slowU into the llask. The 
generation of the gas should be made as gradual as possible; by run 

oing in a small quantity of the acid at fust and tilting the Mask slightly 

this can readily be accomplished ; alter the greater pari of the sample 
has been acted upon by the acid and before the latter has all been added, 



BAKING POWDERS. 591 

a lamp is placed under it, and the contents gradually heated to boiling, 
gentle aspiration being made at the same time. The operation is finally 
finished by the funnel tube being opened, and air, free from 0O 2 , drawn 
through it and through the apparatus, the contends of the flask at the 
same time being kept at ebullition. This is continued for fifteen min- 
utes, when the absorption tube is removed from the apparatus, allowed 
to cool, and weighed. Its increase in weight gives the amount of 0O 2 
absorbed. The determination of the available 0O 2 was conducted in a 
similar manner, with the substitution of pure boiled water in the funnel 
tube instead of acid. After the sample has all been acted on, the con- 
tents of the flask are just brought to a boil, then the lamp is removed 
and air is drawn through the liquid for exactly fifteen minutes. The 
conditions were made as nearly alike as possible for each sample in 
this estimation, for, different results can readily be obtained by vary- 
ing them. The above conditions are believed to be as close an ap- 
proximation to those actually obtaining in the use of the powder as can 
be arrived at in an ordinary chemical analysis. Prolouged boiling of 
the liquid residue is inadvisable, for in case the ingredients in rue pow- 
der are not accurately proportioned, and a considerable excess of bi- 
carbonate is present, long boiling will liberate gas from it after the acid 
ingredient has all been neutralized, aud thus a high result is obtained 
from a poorly-made sample, while in one where the bicarbonate is not 
greatly in excess of the proper amount, the above procedure will readily 
give the full amount available. * 

•In soma experiments made to determine the amount of carbonic acid driven off from 
bicarbonate of soda on heating its water solution, the following results were obtained: 
(1) Just bronght to a boil under the same conditions as in the determinations made 
above, 6.99 per cent, of the weight of the bicarbonate was obtained : (58) Boiled 15 
minutes, 16. 17 percent, was obtained; and, (3) boiled 1| hours, 20.70 per cent., or about 
the full quantity of acid carbonate. 

ESTIMATION OF STAKCH. 

This estimation was made by the well known method of conversion 
by beating with acid and the determination of the copper oxide reducing 
power of the resultant solution. While by no means satisfactory, this 
is probably the best method we have at present lor standi estimation. 
No difficulty was found in its application to all classes of baking-pow- 
ders, the other ingredients offering no obstacle to its proper perform- 
ance. To insure agreeing results it is very essential to conduct the con- 
version under precisely tin- same conditions in all cases. 

The following is the detailed procedure: 

From 2 to 5 grams are weighed out and transferred to an Krlenincyer 
flask; to it are added about L60 to 200 cubic centimeters of a solution 

of hydrochloric acid which has a strength of 4 per cent, of the acid gas. 
The flask is provided with a cork, perforated for the passage of a <'«»n- 

densing tube about 1 meter in Length. The conversion is accomplished 



592 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

by gently boiling the acid liquid for four bours, after which the flask and 
contents are cooled, neutralized by the addition of sodium hydrate, made 
up to a definite volume and the copper oxide reducing power determined. 

The latter operation is best carried out by the method used in this labo- 
ratory, in which asbestos-tipped filtering tubes are used for the end reac- 
tion. 1 The reducing power being calculated as dextrose; 10 parts equal 
!) parts of anhydrous starch. 

Professor Weber used a rough method for the direct estimation of 
starch in his samples, which he describes as follows: 2 

One gram was weighed off, transferred to a small beaker, covered with water, al- 
lowed to stand until action had ceased, filtered and washed, residue sported by means 
of a wash-bottle into a flat-bottomed platinum dish, allowed to settle, the superna- 
tant water removed as far as possible by means of a pipette, the remainder of water 
evaporated, the residue dried at 100° C. and weighed. The residue was then incin- 
erated and the amount of ash deducted from above weight. In case of alum powders 
the ash remaining after ignition was A1 2 3 , which was contained in the residue dried 
at loo- C. as Al 2 (OtI)6; consequently the A1 2 3 was calculated as A1.2(OH)« before de- 
ducting. 

This method was carried out upon the entire series of samples exam 
ined here. In many cases it gave results agreeing quite closely with 
those obtained by the direct estimation, but in some samples the re- 
sults were entirely too high. It is not applicable to alum powders even 
with the correction made above. For a rough method it answers fairly 
well and it is quite easy of execution. 

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

This determination was made in the same manner as in fertilizers, as 
prescribed by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists at their 
last meeting, as follows: 3 . 

Weigh out 2 grams of the sample, ignite carefully in a muffle, and 
treat with 30 cubic centimeters concentrated nitric acid. 

Boil gently until all phosphates are dissolved and all organic matter 
destroyed; dilute to 200 cubic centimeters; mix and pass through a 
dry filter; take 50 cubic centimeters of filtrate; neutralize with am- 
monia. To the hot solutions for every decigram of \ y 2 O b that is present 
add 50 cubic centimeters of molybdic solution. Digest at about 66° (J. 
lor one hour, Alter, ami wash with water or ammonium nitrate solution. 
(Tesl tly nitrate by renewed digestion and addition of more mohbdic 
solution.) Dissolve the precipitate on the tilter with ammonia and hot 
water and wash into a beaker to a bulk of not more than 100 cubic centi- 
meters. Nearly neutralize with hydrochloric acid, cool, and add mag- 
nesia mixture from a burette; add slowly (one drop per second), stir- 
ring vigorously. After fifteen minutes add 30 cubic centimeters of 
ammonia solution of density 0.96\ Let stand several hours (two hours 

1 I'.ilK described in Bull. So, 15, p. 32. 

(' muoioated to the author in Mss. 

'Bull, No. r.>, Chem. l>iv. I', s. Dep'l Ag'l, i>. 5& 



BAKING POWDERS. 593 

arc usually enough). Filter, wash with dilute ammonia, ignite intensely 
for ten minutes, and weigh. 

ESTIMATION OF TARTARIC ACID. 

The method used in this estimation was that known as the " Golden- 
berg Geromont," which is described in full in Chemiker Zeitung, 12. 1888, 
390. This and other methods for the estimation of tartaric acid in 
crude argol and other raw materials were lately submitted to a critical 
comparison in the tartrate factory at Nienburg; 1 the Goldenberg- 
Geromont method avoided the principal sources of error and is recom- 
mended as the best and most easy of execution. 

The procedure as modified for application to a tartrate baking-pow- 
der is as follows: 

Weigh out 5 grams, wash into a. 500-cubic centimeter flask with about 
100 cubic centimeters of water ; add 15 cubic centimeters of strong hydro- 
chloric acid ; make up to mark and allow the starch to settle. Filter, 
measure out 50 cubic centimeters of the clear filtrate ; add to it 10 cubic 
centimeters of a solution of carbonate of potash containing 300 grains 
K 2 ( 3 to the liter and boil half an hour; filter into a porcelain dish and 
evaporate filtrate and washings to a bulk of about 10 cubic centimeters. 
Add gradually with constant stirring 4 cubic centimeters glacial acetic 
acid, and then 100 cubic centimeters of 95 per (tent, alcohol, stirring the 
liquid until the precipitate floating in it assumes a crystalline appear- 
ance. After it has stood long enough for this precipitate to form and 
settle, best for several hours, decant through a small filter, add alcohol 
to the precipitate, bring it on the filter, wash out the dish and finally 
the filter carefully, with alcohol, until itis entirely free from acetic acid. 
Transfer filter and precipitate to a beaker, add water and boil, washing 
out the dish also with boiling water if any of the precipitate adheres 
to it. The resulting solution is titrated with decinormal alkali solution, 
using phenol-phthalein as indicator; 1 cubic centimeter decinormal 
alkali corresponds to. 0188 grams of potassium bitartrate. or .0150 grams 
of tartaric acid. 

ESTIMATION OF ALKALIES. 

The estimation of the soda and potash in the powders was carried 
out by separating them as chlorides, determining the potash as potas- 
sium platinic chloride ami calculating the difference as sodium chloride. 
The detailed procedure was similar to- that used by tin- Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists for determining potash in fertilisers, ftfi 
follows : 

Weigh out 5 grams into a platinum dish and incinerate in a muffle 
at a low heat. The charred muss is well rubbed up in :» mortar, then 

boiled 15 minutes with about 200 cubic centimeters of water to which 



• Chemiker Zeitung 13, 1889, 160. 



594 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

has been added a little hydrochloric acid. The whole is transferred to a 
500-cubic centimeter flask and after cooling made up to the mark and 
filtered. Of the filtered liquid 100 cubic centimeters, representing 1 
gram of the sample, are measured out, heated in the water bath, and 
Blight excess of barium chloride added; then without filtering barium 
hydrate is added in slight excess, the precipitate filtered off and washed. 
To the filtrate is added a little ammonium hydrate and then ammonium 
carbonate until all the barium is precipitated. This precipitate is t i 1 - 
tered and washed, the filtrate evaporated to dryness and carefully igni- 
ted until all volatile matter is driven off, when it is weighed. This gives 
the weight of the mixed chlorides. The residue is taken up with hot- 
water, from 5 to 10 cubic centimeters of a 10 per cent, solution of 
platinic chloride added, and the whole evaporated to a sirupy con- 
sistence in the water bath; then it is treated with strong alcohol, the 
precipitate washed with alcohol by Recantation, transferred to aGooch 
crucible, dried at 100° C, and weighed. The weight of the precipitate 
multiplied by .19308 gives the weight of K 2 0, and by .3056 the equiva- 
lent amount of KC1. The weight of KC1 found is subtracted from the 
weight of the mixed chloride, the remainder being the XaCl, which mul- 
tiplied by .5300 gives the weight of Xa 2 in the sample. 

ESTIMATION OF ALUMINIUM. 

In the case of a " straight" alum powder, the simple estimation by 
burning to ash, extracting, and determining the alum by direct precip- 
itation with ammonia would probably be accurate, but in view of the 
frequent use of Hour as a " filler,'' as well as of the presence ol* calcium 
as an impurity, it is best, even with those made up with alum alone, 
to use a method which will insure a complete separation of the alum. 
The following procedure, given by Allen for the quantitative estimation 
of alum in bread, was found to give good results with baking-powders: 

Take 5 grams and incinerate in a muffle. The heat should be mod- 
erate so as not to fuse the ash. The process is completed by adding 
pure sodium carbonate and a little niter, and heating the mixture to 
fusion. The product is rinsed out with water into a beaker, acidulated 

with hydrochloric acid, and evaporated to dryness. The residue is 

taken up with dilute acid, the liquid made up to 600 cubic centimeters 
in a graduated tlask, filtered, and 50 cubic centimeters taken for pre 
cipitation. To the solution dilute ammonia is added until the precipi- 
tate barely redissolves on stirring, when a slightly acid solution of am- 
monium act (ate is added, and the liquid brought to a boil. After a few 
minutes 1 beating the solution should be set aside for some hours, when 
its appearance should be observed. (If gelatinous it probably consists 
solely of iron and alum phosphates, but if granular more OI less ol' the 

earthy phosphates have beeu co-precipitated; then it should be sepa- 
rated, rediSSOlved in dilute hydrochloric acid, the solution again neu- 
tralized with ammonia, and treated with ammonium acetate.) The pre- 



BAKING POWDERS. 595 

cipitate of iron and aluminium phosphates is filtered off, washed, and 
redissolved in the smallest quantity of hydrochloric acid. The resultant 
solution is poured into an excess of an aqueous solution of pure caustic 
soda contained in a platinum or nickel vessel. After heating for some 
t i me, the liquid is considerably diluted and filtered. The filtrate is acid- 
ulated with hydrochloric acid, ammonium acetate and a few drops of 
sodium phosphate added, and then a slight excess of ammonia. The 
liquid is kept hot till all smell of ammonia is lost, when it is filtered, 
and the precipitated aluminium phosphate washed, ignited, and weighed. 
Its weight multiplied by 3.713 gives the ammonia alum (hydrated), or 
by 3.873 the potash alum in the .5 grams of sample taken. 

In the phosphate and alum powders the above method gave a fairly 
good separation of the alum, but the following separation by means of 
molybdenum was found to be more exact, and at the same time much 
more convenient of application. It was adapted to the powders by Mr. 
K. P. McElroy. 

Weigh out 5 grams into a platinum dish, char, treat with strong nitric 
acid, and filter into a 500 cubic centimeter flask. After washing the 
residue slightly, transfer filter and all back to the platinum dish and 
burn to whiteness. To the ash add mixed carbonates and fuse. Take 
up with nitric acid, evaporate to dryness, acidify again with nitric acid, 
and wash all into the 500 cubic centimeter flask. Nearly neutralize the 
contents of the flask with ammonia, and add molybdate of ammonium 
sufficient to precipitate all the phosphoric acid present. Allow to stand 
some time, make up to the mark, shake thoroughly, and filter off 100 cu- 
bic centimeters through a dry filter. This is exactly neutralized with 
ammonia, keeping the solution as cool as possible to avoid the deposi- 
tion of molybdic acid. Filter and wash the precipitate, redissolve in 
dilute nitric acid with the addition of a little ammonium nitrate, and 
precipitate as before. Filter through a paper. filter, burn, ignite, and 
weigli as A1^0 3 . The alumina and phosphoric acid may be determined 
in the same sample by the above method, modifying it as follows: When 
the solution, ash, etc., have all been brought into the graduated flask, 
make up to the mark without adding molybdate, filter and take KM) 
Cubic centimeters, nearly neutralize with ammonia, add ammonium ni- 
trate and molybdate of ammonium, digest and filter. The filtrate con- 
tains the aluminium and may be precipitated with ammonia as above, 
while the phosphoric acid is all contained in the precipitate, which may 

be redissolved in ammonia and precipitated with magnesia mixture. 

ESTIMATION OF OALOIUM. 

This determination Mas made as follows: Weigh out ;> grams of the 
sample, transfer to a 500 onbic centimeter flask, add in or 50 cubic cen- 
timeters of water, and then 20 or :'»<> cubic centimeters iA' Strong hydro* 
chloric acid. Make up to the mark with water, shake thoroughly, and 
set aside to allow standi to settle. Filter through a dry filter, and take 



596 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

aliquot parts of the filtrate for precipitation ; in phosphate powders not 
more than 50 cubic centimeters should be need. Nearly neutralize with 
ammonia, acidify slightly with acetic acid, add ammonia acetate, and 
boil. Filter from the precipitate, if there be any, add ammonium ox- 
alate, and allow to stand several hours. Filter into a Gooch crucible, 
and dry at 100°. Weigh as oxalate. 

ESTIMATION OF SULPHURIC ACID. 

The sulphuric acid was estimated without previous ignition of the 
powder, as follows : 

Weigh out .5 to 1 gram of the powder, according to its character, the 
former quantity being more convenient for alum powders, and transfer 
to a beaker. Digest with strong hydrochloric acid until all of the pow- 
der, including the starch, goes into solution ; add barium chloride to 
slight excess while still hot, and allow it to stand for twelve hours, or 
over night. Filter through a Gooch crucible, ignite, and weigh. 

ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA. 

Ammonia is present either as bicarbonate, or as ammonium sulphate 
in the alum powders. The estimation was made by the Kjeldahl 
method, as used by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 1 
YYheie flour instead of starch is used as a filling the gluten would give 
ammonia, of course, and wherever a tartrate powder was found to give 
any appreciable amount of ammonia by the method, a weighed portion 
was taken, water added, the solution filtered from the starch, and sub- 
jected to analysis. The results were practically the same as those ob- 
tained directly from the powder. Probably flour is not often used. In 
the case of the alum powders, the difference that would be made by 
Hour tilling was disregarded, as the amount of alum present is suffi- 
ciently established by the percentage of aluminium oxide and sulphuric 
acid found; the amount of ammonia found was almost invariably low 
in proportion to these other constituents of ammonia alum. 

ESTIMATION OF MOISTURE. 

The percentage of water of association and combination as given in the 
analyses was obtained by difference A Dumber of attempts were made 
tu estimate it directly in the following way : A weighed portion of the 

sample was placed in a D lube, which was kept immersed in boiling 
water. At one end this tube was connected with a series of sulphuric- 
acid wash-bottles, and at the Other with weighed potash bulbs filled 
with sulphuric acid, and beyond these wit h an aspirator. In this way 
a current of dried air was drawn through the sample while it was kept 
at Kin ( '., and t he water draw n from it in this way was absorbed by the 
sulphuric acid in the potash bulb, while the carbonic acid was drawn 



I'ii 1 1 > desoribed in Ball. No. 19, Chein. Div. U. S. Dep'1 Agrioulfcure. 



BAKING POWDERS. 597 

into the aspirator. The increase in weight of the potash bulbs gave 
the weight of water absorbed. It was found, however, that the sample 
would cake into a hard mass, through which a channel would form 
which would permit the passage of the current of dry air, without af- 
fecting the greater mass of the powder, and no exact results could 
be obtained. Some improvement was made by mixing the powder 
with dry oxide of zinc, so as to prevent the formation of a channel, 
but still the results were not at all satisfactory, and the attempt to 
make a direct estimation was finally abandoned. Even if the determi- 
nation could be made exact, it is doubtful if all the water of combina- 
tion could be obtained at 100° 0., especially in phosphate and alum 
powders, and probably a temperature high enough to accomplish this 
would effect a decomposition of the starch. 

EXPRESSION OF THE RESULTS OF ANALYSIS. 

The results of analysis are given, first, as acid and basic radicals in 
percentage composition while in the second part of each table an attempt 
has been made to combine these into salts showing the constitution of 
the powder. The difficulties attending this calculation of the pro- 
bable combination of the acids and bases were so great that I was 
frequently tempted to give it up entirely and state only percentage com- 
position. I finally concluded to insert the calculation with the proviso 
that it should be considered at best merely an approximation to the 
exact composition or the po,vder. The obstacles in the way of an exact 
calculation may be stated as follows: In the first place the amount of 
total carbonic acid found is always less than that required to form bi- 
carbonate of soda with the amount of sodium oxide found. This is 
undoubtedly due to a partial action of the acid constituent of the pow- 
der upon the bicarbonate, by which carbonic acid has been lost. The 
percentage of bicarbonate is therefore calculated from the per cent, 
of carbonic acid found, and the excess of sodium oxide left is stated as 
"residual" sodium oxide, without attempting to make further hypotheses 
as to the results of its combination with the acid constituent. It is 
possible that part of the bicarbonate may become converted into the 
normal carbonate under the conditions of being mixed and in contact 
with other chemicals, though this is not likely; then the indefinite 
composition of many of the commercial salts used in the powders ren- 
ders it an extremely difficult matter to arrive at any satisfactory con- 
clusion as to the make up of the powder in which they are used. The 
acid phosphate of lime, for instance, is a very variable substance, and 
even ammonia alum, which might reasonably be Supposed to be constant 
in its composition, is found to vary widely from the theoretical. Its 
content of water varies according to the greater or less amount of dry 
ingit has undergone, ami aside from this the ratios of the ammonia, sul- 
phuric acid, and alumina to one another are at variance with the tor inula. 



598 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



This is shown by the following analysis of a sample of commercial 
ammonia alum obtained in a powdered condition : 

Analysis of commercial ammonia alum. 



Constituents. 



Aluminium oxide, ALO3 

Sulphuric acid, SOs 

Ammonia, NBj 

Water of crystallization (by difference) 



Found. 



100. 00 



Theoretical 
composition. 



/'. /■ )lt. 


/', r cent 


12.62 


11. TG 


34.17 


35.28 


2.75 


3.75 


50.46 


49. Gl 



100.00 



This indicates that the commercial salt is somewhat basic as regards 
the alumina, yet there is a deficiency of ammonia, so that if the former 
is all combined with sulphuric acid as normal sulphate, there is still not 
sufficient of the acid left for combination with the ammonia, although 
the latter is present in too low a proportion to the other constituents. 
This anomaly holds good throughout many of the samples. 

I have expressed the sum total of the alumina, sulphuric acid, and 
ammonia as " anhydrous ammonia alum," combining the sulphuric acid, 
first with the alumina as far as it went, and the rest with the ammonia, 
and where there was not sufficient for combination with all the ammonia 
adding the latter as ammonia. 

The presence of acid phosphate of lime still further complicates this 
calculation, as it is a question how much of the sulphuric acid should be 
taken from the alum to combine with part of the lime as sulphate of 
lime. 

In the expression of the results where acid phosphate of lime is pres- 
ent, 1 have combined the lime with phosphoric acid as normal phos- 
phate as far as it went, and added the rest as free phosphoric acid, 
grouping the whole together and calling it "acid phosphate of lime." 
Following is an analysis of a sample of commercial acid phosphate of 
lime, obtained from the trade: 

Analysis of commercial acid phosphate of lime. 

I'd' cent. 

Caloiuri oxide, CaO 24.93 

Phosphoric acid, P I > . 68.46 

Sulphuric acid, SOj 15 

Water 28.80 

loo.:*;* 

In this sample the ratio of lime, to phosphoric acid is about 1 :2, 
and this relation holds good in many of the powders containing t he 
phosphate, bat in some it is quite different The above sample is al- 
most free from sulphate of lime, while man\ of the powders show con- 
siderable quantities Of it, indicating that all the acid phosphates are 



BAKING POWDERS. 599 

not so pure in this respect. Chemists will readily understand the im- 
possibility of giving the proportions of the various forms of lime phos- 
phates contained in such a substance. As given in the tables the relative 
acidity is shown, though of course the phosphoric acid does not occur as 
free acid. 

Both the alum and the lime phosphate contain large percentages of 
water, hygroscopic moisture in the latter, and crystallization water in 
the former, so that the per cents, of the "anhydrous" salts given are 
always lower than the proportions of the hydrated salts originally used 
in compounding the powder. Nearly half the weight of the alum is 
crystallization water, some part of which is probably driven off in some 
cases when it is used for baking-powder purposes, but there are no 
means of ascertaining how much, and of course the moisture in the acid 
phosphate would vary in different samples, so there is no possible way 
of approximating the amounts of the hydrated substances, as they were 
originally used. 

Ammonia bicarbonate is another substance of indefinite composition. 
As given in the tables it has been calculated from the ammonia found, 
upon the assumed composition given it in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, viz, 
NH 4 HCO 3 .NH 4 NH 2 0O 2 . 

In case ammonia carbonate were present in any of the powders con- 
taining ammonia alum, I know of no way of estimating the amount or 
even the fact of its presence in the small quantities used. 

The percentage of "available carbonic acid" is placed first in the 
tables as constituting the most important indication of the efficiency of 
the sample as an aerating agent. 

TARTRATE POWDERS. 

5503. — Roya Baking-Powder. 
[Manufactured by The Royal Baking-Powder Company, New York 1 

Available carbonic acid percent.. 1*2.7-1 

Cubic Inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 153. <> 

Leavening gas (available COj -\- NH :! ) per cent.. 13.06 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212 P 160.6 

PKBCES i .mm. I 0MPO8ITION. 

Total carbonic acid. ('<>. 12. 92 

Sodium oxide, Na.-O 10.30 

Potassium oxide KO 12.02 

Calcium oxide, CaO ' . 13 

A in ii ion i a, NII ( 

Tartaric acid, ('., I !.,(>.- 37.46 

Sulphuric acid, BO$. 

Starch U5.34 

Watti ot combination and association by difference 10.26 

LOO. 00 



600 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

PROBABLE PEBCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO :( 23. 61 

(Residual sodium oxide- Na : 0) 1. 59 

Ammonium bicarbonate XdlnCjOs .98 

Potassium bitartrate, KHC 4 1I 4 0« 5;5. :?4 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 ,31 

Starch 1(1 M 

Water of association 3, S3 

100. 00 

This powder contains a small quantity of ammonium bicarbonate. 

5504. — Dr. Price's Cream I'>akin<) Powder. 

[Made by Price Baking-Powder Company, New York and Chicago.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 11.13 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 133. 

PEHCENT.U ; K ( '< >M POSITION. 

Total carbonic acid,C0 2 12.25 

Sodium oxide, Na : 11.0:} 

Potassium oxide, KgO 11.71 

Calcium oxide, CaO .10 

Tartaric acid, C 4 H 4 5 35. 14 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 .12 

Starch 18. 43 

Water of combination and association by ditlerenee 11. 13 

100.00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NalICO :t 23. 38 

( Residual .sodium oxide, Na 8 0) 2.40 

Potassium bitartrate, K1IC,H 4 0,; 50.04 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 .20 

Starch UJ. 13 

Water of association .">. 55 

100. 00 
5505. — Cleveland s 8uperior Baking' Powder. 

[MadS by Cleveland Brothers, «J11 and 013 I'.i ua.lw a\ . All.any, N. V.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 1'2.5§ 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at -J 12 P 151, l 

l'Eia i \ i \«.i. < I >m POBI1 IOH. 

Total carbonic a<i<l, ('( > 13.21 

Sodium oxide, Na ■<> 13. 5H 

Potassinm oxide, Kj< > -' - 14.93 

( 'all i u in oxide, CaO • ' s 

Tail arie aeid, <\II,<> 41, HO 

Sulphuric acid, 80s 10 

Starch 7.42 

Wat'i "i combination and association by difference 8. 98 

100.00 



BAKING POWDERS. 601 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodinm bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 25.21 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na 2 0) 4.28 

Potassium bitartrate, KHC 4 H 4 6 59. 'Zo 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 • H 

Starch 7.42 

Water of association 3. (J7 

100. 00 
5507. — Sea Foam (Gantz) Baking-Powder. 

[Made by Gantz, Jones & Co., 176 Duane street, New York.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent . . §.03 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212 G F 96. 5 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 8. 10 

Sodium oxide, Na 3 . 15. 47 

Potassium oxide, K-0 15. 'J4 

Calcium oxide, CaO .78 

Tartaric acid, C 4 H 4 5 44.18 

Starch 5.32 

Water of combination and association by differeuce 10. 91 

100. 00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 15. W> 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na-O) 9. 77 

Potassium bitartrate, KHC 4 H 4 6 62.92 

(Calcium oxide, CaO) .78 

Starch 5.:52 

Water of association 5. 75 

100. 00 
This and the preceding, No. 5505, contain very small quantities of 
starch, apparently rather too little for the proper preservation of the 
last sample. 

5522. — Becker's r< r/< oi Baking-Powder. 
IMadoby George V. Hooker & Co., 205 Cherry street, New Vork ] 

Available carbonic acid per cent .. 9.29 

Cubic Inches per ounce of powder at 212 F 111.6 

it.iiiia i LGE COMPOS! ri'»\. 

Total carbonic acid, CO. 9.26 

Sodium oxide, Na_.<) 11.61 

Potassium oxide, K.-<> 11.63 

( 'ale linn oxide, CaO . '.»1 

Tartaric acid, C«H 4 :;:». ?i 

Sulphuric acid. SOj 

Starch 18,78 

Water of combination and association bj difference i ; 96 

100.00 



602 FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, XaHC0 3 17.67 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na^O) ... u l J 

Potassium bitartrate, KHC 4 H,O fi ;>t;. 60 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 .37 

(Calcium oxide, CaO) 76 

Starch 12.78 

Water of association 0.73 

100. 00 

This sample contains rather more lime than most of the other tartrate 
powders. The excess given above is probably combined with tartaric 
acid as calcium tartrate; the same is true of the two following samples: 

5527.— Gilbert S. Graves's Imperial Baling- Powder. 

[Made by The Imperial Baking-Powder Company, Buffalo, N. Y.] 

Available carbonic acid 7.28 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F r>7. 4 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 8. 47 

Sodium oxide, Na- 2 13. 62 

Potassium oxide, K 2 9. 42 

Calcium oxide, CaO .45 

Tartaric acid, C 4 H 4 5 38.74 

Starch 84.57 

Water of combination and association by difference 10. 73 



100. 00 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 



Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 10. 16 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na_< )) 7. (">0 

Potassium bitartrate, KHC 4 H 4 06 46.63 

(Calcium oxide, CaO) .48 

Starch 84.57 

Water of association 4. ">3 

100.00 
5529. — Thurber'a Beat Baking-Powder. 

[Made by II. K. a W. v.. Thurbcr & Co., West Broadway, Readeand Hudson streets, Hew Vork.| 

Available carbonic acid per cent . . 10 26 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 123.2 

I'l.ui i:\ i \«,i: COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic aoid, CO 10. 64 

Sodium oxide, N;i : <) 1(». ('.."> 

Potassium oxide, KgO 12*26 

Caloinm oxide, CaO . 00 

l:.n trie aoid, CAO 38.75 

Bnlpbnric acid, SOj .07 

Starch 13.41 

Watei ol ' -om hi nation ami asocial Ion by di lie re nee 13.66 

100. 00 



BAKING POWDERS. 603 
PROBABLE PERCE2FTAGB COMBINATION. 

Sodium mcarboDate, NaHCOj 20. 12 

(Residual sodium oxide, XhjO) :?.•>> 

Potassium bitartrate, KHC4II4CV; . 55. 19 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 .12 

(Calcium oxide, CaO) . b'l 

Starch 1:5.41 

Water of association 7. 33 

100. 00 
5513. — Sterling Baking- Powder. 

[Made by Sterliu^ Manufacturing Company, Baltimore, Md.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent . 9.53 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 114 

Leavening gas (available CO* -J- NH 3 ) per cent . . 9. 90 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 123. 3 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 10.66 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 10.38 

Potassium oxide, K 2 .66 

Calcium oxide, CaO .15 

Ammonia, NH. { .37 

Tartaric acid, C4H4O5 21.94 

Starch 40.05 

Water of combination and association by difference 15.79 

100. 00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. = 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOj 19. 13 

(Residual sodium oxide, NftsO) 3.32 

Ammonium bicarbonate, NgHuCaOs 1. 14 

Free tartaric arid, J rX: 4 ir,0 84.93 

Starch 40.05 

Water of association 11. 43 

UK). 00 

This and the following are the only samples examined which were 
made up ifithfree tartaric acid as the sole acid constituent. Both con- 
tain small quantities of ammonium bicarbonate. The small quantities 
of potassium and calcium oxide probably exist as tartrates. 
5535. — Our Beat Baking- Powder. 
[Hade by the Purity Chemical Works, Philadelphia, Pa.] 

Available carbonic acid . percent.. 1.5>N 

Cubic iuciics per ounce of powder al 212 P 9.6 

Leavening gas (available co. 4- NEW per cent . . 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder al 212 F 

i'i ;b< r.\ 1 0.1 i OMPOS1 1 ion 

Total carbonic acid, CO. 5.13 

Sodium oxide, N'n.o 13.65 

Calcium OXide, CaO . t'7 

Ammonia. \ 1 1 . 'J t 

Tartaric acid, < .1 1 ,< > L8. IS 

Salphuric acid, SO] .61 

Starch 45.63 

Water of combination ami association by difference 16. 1'.' 

100. 00 

53G0— pt. 5 1 — 



604 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 9.01 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na./)) 10. 32 

Ammonium bicarbonate, N3H11C.2O5 .74 

Free tartaric acid, H:C 4 H 4 6 21. 00 

(Sulphuric acid, S0 3 ) - .61 

Starch 45.63 

Water 12.69 

100. 00 
The sulphuric acid in this sample probably is present as sodium sul- 
phate, which may be simply an impurity in some of the salts. 

PHOSPHATE POWDERS. 

5506.— Wheat Baking-Powder. 
[Made by Martin Kalbfleisch's Sous, New York.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 3.79 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 21'2° F ... 4.">. ."> 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* 5. 57 

Sodium oxide, NagO. 14. 10 

Potassium oxide, K-0 7. 49 

Calcium oxide, CaO 11.96 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 5 36.69 

Sulphuric acid, SOj . 16 

Ammonia, N1I 3 .16 

Water of combination and association by difference 23. 87 

100. 00 

This powder is quite peculiar in its make up. It contains no starch 
or filling and has a very low per cent, of available gas. It contains a 
small quantity of ammonia bicarbonate. It contains a considerable 
amount of potassium oxide, which would indicate the presence of an 
acid phosphate of potash, as there is no other possible combination for 
this base, and the per cent, of lime is hardly sufficient to answer for all 
the phosphoric acid present. 

5508. Rumford Feast Powder, 
[Made by Rumford Chemioal Wmi^, Proi Ideooe, K. I.] 

Available carl ic acid per cent .. l*2.*<; 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212 V 164. ■■ 

PBRCBN 1 LOB C< >MPOS1 HON. 

Total carbonic aoid, co 2 1:!. 17 

Sodium OXide, Na.O I *-• <»«*» 

Potassium oxide, KfO • •'»' 

Calcium oxide, CaO 10. 27 

Phosphoric acid, P«0 21.83 

Starch 26.41 

Water of combination and association by difference 15.05 

100.00 



BAKING POWDERS. 605 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC03 * 25. 71 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na^O) 3. 17 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous : 

Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 - 18.95 

H3PO4 18. 15 

37. 10 

Starch 2G.41 

Water of association (phosphate) 7.(51 

100. 00 
5509. — Horsford's Self-raining Bread Preparation. 

[Made by Ruiuford Chemical Works, Providence, R. I.] 

THE ACID POWDER. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Calcium oxide, CaO 16.78 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 5 23. ( J7 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 6.00 

Starch 20.81 

Water of combination and association by ditference 32. 44 

1C0. 00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Acid phosphate of lime: 

Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 21.00 

H3PO4 19.80 

40. 80 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 11. 40 

Starch 20. 81 

Water of association '2(5. 99 

100. 00 

This sample was different from all the others in being put up in two 
separate packages. One of these contained the acid ingredient, with 
starch to keep it from becoming dry, and the other, bicarbou ate of soda. 
The directions are to mix the contents of both papers, if the whole is to 
be made use of at once, or to use two equal measures of the acid part to 
one of the soda. For analysis the contents of the papers were taken 
separately, and the results obtained from the acid part are given above. 
The other paper contained simply bicarbonateof soda of good strength. 

For the determination of the available carbonic acid another sample 
was purchased, the entire contents of both papers thoroughly mixed, 
and a portion of the mixed powders weighed] (Hit and submitted to an 
alysis. The first estimation made gave 13.66 per cent, available car- 
bonic acid. By the time a duplicate estimation was made, perhaps an 
hour after the first, the per cent, had fallen to L2.03, showing a very 
rapid deterioration, or loss of available gas. Two BUbsequent estima- 
tions made the same day gave, respectively, 9.50 per cent, and !». pel 



606 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

cent. Two determinations made the next day gave 8.35 per cent, and 
8.35 per cent. This plan of keeping the acid and alkali ingredients sepa- 
rate appears to be an excellent oue, though it is similar to the old method 
of using cream of tartar and baking-soda, with acid phosphate of lime 
substituted for the cream of tartar. The acid phosphate used in this 
sample contains considerable sulphate. The preceding sample (No. 5508), 
though made by the same firm, is entirely free from it, showing that it 
had been made from a better article of phosphate. 

ALUM POWDERS. 

5526. — Vienna Baking-Powder. 

| Made by the Pemi Chemical Works, Philadelphia, Pa. J 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 6.41 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° P.... 77. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, COj 7. 90 

Sodium oxide, Na»0 6. 99 

Calcium oxide, CaO .12 

Aluminium oxide, A1 2 3 3. 65 

Ammonia, NH 3 1.02 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 10.11 

Starch 45.4] 

Water of combination and association by difference 24.80 



100. 00 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 



Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 18.98 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na-O) 1. 4o 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

A1 S (S0 4 )* 12.15 

(NHOsSO* 2.65 

NH 3 34 

15. 14 

Starch 45.41 

Water of association and of crystallization (alum) 19. 04 

100. 00 
&&,— Metropolitan Baking- Powder. 

[Made by Metropolitan Pei Fame Company . Washington, l> <'.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent . . §.10 

Cubic iii< Iks per ounce of powder at 212 P 97. :? 

PERI BNTAGl COM POSI 1 1<>N. 

Total c.i I home acid, ( !( » 9.45 

Sodium oxide, Nm 9.58 

Aluminium oxide, Al o 3 :i. 7:5 

Ammonia, MI , 1.07 

Sulphuric acid, SO* 10.71 

Starch 43.26 

Water of combination and association by difference 22. 27 

100. 00 



BAKING POWDERS. 607 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 18. 04 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na 2 0) 2. 86 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous : 

A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 12.42 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 3.33 

NH 3 21 

15. 96 

Starch 43.25 

Water of association and crystallization (alum) 19. H9 

100. 00 

5531.— Cottage Baking- Powder. 

[Made by New York Yeast Company, New York.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 6.62 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 79. 5 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 7. 80 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 6.77 

Aluminium oxide, A1 2 C>3 3.92 

Ammonia, NH 3 .94 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 10.63 

Starch 52.29 

Water of combination and association by difference 20. 10 

100.00 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO :} 14. 89 

( Residual sodium oxide, Na : < )) 1.28 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 14.05 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 3.47 

NH 3 32 

17. W 

Starch 52.99 

Water of association and crystallization (alum) 13.70 

100. 00 

MIXED POWDERS. 

~u>\\. — l><»,it i/'k Baking-Powder, 

[Hade i>.\ Doolej a Br©., \. « Fork.1 

Available carbonic aoid per cent .. 9.6*2 

Cobic inches per oanoe of powder al 212 P 115.6 



608 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 9.55 

Sod i uin oxide, Na.O 10.31 

Potassium oxide, KjO 4. 51 

Ammonia, NH, .22 

Aluminium oxide, A1;0 3 'A.'2~> 

Calcium oxide, CaO .35 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 7.85 

Tartaric acid, C 4 H 4 5 (?) 

Starch 31.54 

Water of combination and association (including tartaric acid) by differ- 
ence 32.42 



100. 00 



In this and the following sample no satisfactory estimation of the 
tartaric acid could be obtained in presence of the alum. Both contain 
free tartaric acid, and the potash present is probably combined as bi- 
tartrate. This sample contains a trace of phosphoric acid. This form 
of mixed powder should undoubtedly be condemned. 

5523. — Miles' Premium Baking- Poivder. 

[Made by Joseph U. Larzelere & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 3.56 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 42. S 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* • 3. 43 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 10.05 

Potassium oxide, KgO 4.78 

Calcium oxide, CaO .28 

Ammonia, NH 3 «73 

Al Mini nium oxide, A1*0 3 3.69 

Tartaric acid, CJT 4 6 (?) 

Sulphuric aeid, SO, 9.65 

Starch 18.78 

Water of combination and association (including tartaric acid) by differ* 

enco • 48. 77 

100. 00 
ALUM AND PHOSPHATE POWDERS. 

5610.—- Hrnki W Baking-Powder. 

[Mhi1<'!>, Seakali Bros., Paienon, N.J.I 

Available carbonic acid ...pel ecut .. 7.71 

Cubic Inches per ounce of powdei al 212 P 93. 



BAKING POWDERS. 609 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO2 8. 34 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 12.25 

Aluminium oxide, AI2O.3 3. 57 

Calcium oxide, CaO 1.80 

Phosphoric acid, P2O5 5. 60 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 9. 79 

Ammonia, NH 3 .86 

Starch 40.91 

Water of combination and association by difference 16. 88 

100. 00 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 15.92 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na 2 0) 6.JH3 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

Al(SO<) 3 11.89 

(NIl,),S0 4 2.42 

NH 3 24 

14. 55 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

Ca 3 (P0 4 )* 3.32 

H :j PO< 5.(53 

8. 95 

Starch 40.91 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 13. 29 

100. 00 

5511. — Mason 1 8 Yeast- Powder. 

[Made by the Dixon Yeast-Powder Company, 231 Seventh street S. W., Washington, D. CI 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 9.96 

Cubic iuches per ounce of powder at 212° F 119. 6 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* 10.66 

Sodium oxide, Na^O 12.58 

A In inin in mi oxide, AlgOs L87 

Calcium oxide, CaO 1. 17 

Phosphoric acid, P:O ft 

Sulphuric acid, SO ;1 11.02 

Ammonia, MI, 1.04 

Btaroh 43. B3 

Water of oombin ition and associations by difference! 11.86 

100.00 



610 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHC0 3 20. 34 

E& -dual sodium oxide, Na.^O) 5. 07 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

A1,(S0 4 ) 3 14.22 

(NH<):S0 4 1.76 

NH 3 59 

16. 57 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous : 

Ca :J (P0 4 ) 2 2.16 

H3PO4 3.57 

5. 73 

Starch 43.83 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 8.46 

100. 00 

5512. — Dixon Yeast- Ponder. 

I Made by the Dixon Yeast-Powder Company, 231 Seventh street. S. W., Washington, D. C] 

Available carbonic acid per ceut.. 10.37 

Cubic nches per ounce of powder at 212° F 124. 6 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 10. 68 

Sodium oxide, Na^O 14.04 

Calcium oxide, CaO 1.29 

Aluminium oxide, AI2O3 4.59 

Ammonia, NH 3 1. 13 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 6 5 3.38 

Sulphuric acid, 80s 11.57 

Starch 48.93 

Water of combination and association by difference 10. 39 

100. 00 



PBOBABl 1: PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOa 20 - :w 

1 Residual Bodinna oxide, Xa.< >) G. r>2 

Ammonia alum anhydrous: 

Al ; (SO ( ) :i 15.88 

(NH4)«SO< - l.« 

MI. 7,; 

17 71 

Arid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

PO4). 8 88 

II l'() 4 3.16 



Btarcb 42 » 93 

Water oi assoeiation I phosphate) and orystalliaation (alum) 6.91 

100.00 



BAKING POWDERS. 611 

This and the preceding sample are made by the same firm, and are 
very similar in composition. 

5515. — Patapsco Baking-Poicder. 

[Made by Smith, Han way & Co., Baltimore, Md. Put up in glasses.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. T. 58 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 91.1 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 3 9. 18 

Sodium oxide, Na 3 9.83 

A luminium oxide, AI2O3 4. 55 

Calcium oxide, CaO 2. 77 

Phosphoric acid, PjOs 1. 44 

Sulphuric acid,S0 3 13.01 

Ammonia, NH 3 .91 

Starch 41.24 

Water of combination and association by difference 17. 07 

100. 00 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOs 17.52 

(Residual sodium oxide Na 2 0) 3. 36 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous : 

Al 2 (S0 4 ) a 15.15 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 3.53 

18. 68 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 .40 

Acid phosphate of lime, auhydrous: 

CaO 2.58 

P 2 6 1.44 

4.02 

Starch 41. 2 1 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 1 1. 72 

100. 00 

This and the three samples following all have the same brand, but 
were put up in different shape. Nil 5515 being contained in glass bot- 
tles, No. 5516 in tin cans, and No. .V>17 being sold in bulk. No. 5.51!) is 
another brand made by the same linn. Of these, Nos. 5515 and 5517 

give very similar results on analysis, while in Nos. 5516 and 5519 the 

numbers agree closely with one another, though quite different from the 
other two samples. In Nos. 5515 and 5517 the acid phosphate of lime 

is given simply as the sum of the per cents, of OaO and P»0 found. 
There is probably considerable calcium sulphate in these samples, but 

if the sulphuric acid IS combined with all the alum there is not enough 
left for combination with the lime. 



612 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

5516. — Patapsco Baking- Powder. 
[Made by Smith, Hauway 6c Co., Baltimore, Mil. In tin cans.] 

Available carbonic acid p er cent.. 6. 70 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 55, it; 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid,C0 2 7.<V2 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 9. 21 

Aluminium oxide, AI..O3 3. 01 

Calcium oxide, CaO 2. 66 

Ammonia, NII 3 .88 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 5 3.28 

Sulphuric acid, 80s 12.26 

Starch 36,39 

Water of combination and association by difference 24. 09 

100. 00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO.i 14. .")4 

1 Residual sodium oxide, NagO) 3.84 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

A] 2 (S0 4 ) :i 12.02 

(NIi 4 ),S0 4 3.41 

15. 43 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 3. 02 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

Ca :i (P0 4 ) 2 '.. 2.68 

H l'() 4 2.87 

5.49 

Starch 36.39 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 21.29 

100. 00 
5617. — Patapseo Baking-Powder. 

[Made by Smith, Hanwaj & Co., Baltimore, Md. Sold in hulk.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 8. 42 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212 P 101.1 

I'KKt i:\ 1 a».i: COMPOS! PIOH. 

Total carbonic acid, COi 9. 65 

Sodium oxide, NagO >.:',:> 

AJ in in in oxide, Al : o : , 4.78 

( ale i ii in oxide, CaO 2.66 

Ammonia, Nib, .98 

Phosphoric acid. I'o 1.78 

Sulphuric acid, BOi 13. is 

Starch 13.92 

Water ol combination and aatooial ioD bj difference 15.00 

100.00 



BAKING POWDERS. 613 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCCh 18.21 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na 2 0) 1.00 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

AL(S0 4 )3 15.72 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 3.34 

19. 00 

Acid phosphate of lime, aubydrous: 

CaO 2.00 

P,0 6 1.78 

4.44 

Starcb 43.92 

Water of association (pbospbate) and crystallization (alum) 12.77 

100. 00 

5519. — Silver Spoon Baking- Pou-(hr. 

[Made by Smith, Hauway & Co., Baltimore, Md.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 7. 33 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° V 88. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, C0 2 8. 20 

Sodium oxide, Na^O 7. 20 

Potassium oxide, K 2 .7G 

Calcium oxide, CaO 2.29 

Aluminium oxide, AI2O3 3. 58 

Am mon in, NH3 .91 

Phosphoric acid, P»O fi 3.01 

Sulphuric acid, SO3 8.78 

Starch 41.20 

Water of combination and association by difference 23.29 

100. oo 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOa 16, L3 

(Besidnal sodium oxide, Na*0) 1. 44 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

Al S0<) * 11.98 

(NH4)t80 4 ra 

Ml 78 

13. 12 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

I I.S9 

II I'O, 

6.64 

Starch 41.26 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallisation (alum) 81.91 

100.00 



614 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

5520. — Windsor Baking- Powder. 
[Made by Edwin J. Gillies & Co., 245 and 247 Washington street, New York. J 

Available carbonic acid per cent . . 9. 36 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 1 1*2. 4 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO? 9.86 

Sodium oxide, Na«0 11.92 

Calcium oxide, CaO 1.76 

Ammonia, NH 3 . 9U 

Aluminium oxide AI2O3 3. 60 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 5 5.01 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 10.51 

Starch 41.26 

Water of combination and association by difference 15. 09 

100. 00 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate. NaHC0 3 18. 82 

1 Residual sodium oxide, Na 2 0) 4.98 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

Al,(80 4 ) 3 -, 11.99 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 ) 3.50 

15. 49 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous : 

Ca,(P0 4 )2 3.25 

H3PO4 4.86 

8.11 

Starch 41.26 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 11. 34 

100.00 

5521.— Davis 1 O. K. Baking- Powder. 

[Made by R. B. Davis, 112 Murray street, New York.) 

Available carbonic acid per cent .. 8. IO 

Cubic Inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 1)7. 3 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSI1 ION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* 9. OS 

Sodium oxide, Na-0 11.520 

Calcium oxide, CaO 3.47 

Ammonia, NH :! 1.04 

A In in in in in oxide, A I.O i 4. 67 

Phosphoric acid, r <> 

Snlphnric acid, BOi 11. 54 

Starch 38. B5 

Watei of combination and association by difference l?. 26 

100. 00 



BAKING POWDERS. 615 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. . 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOn 17.22 

(Residual sodium oxide, NajO) L85 

Ammonia alum, auhydrous: 

A1 2 (S0 4 )3 15.55 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 1.09 

NH 3 76 

17. 40 

Acid phospbate of lime, anhydrous: 

Ca 3 (P0 4 ).2 6.40 

H 3 P0 4 8.31 

14.71 

Starch 32.85 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 12.97 

100. 00 
5524. — Brun8ivick Yeast- Ponder. 

[Manufactured in New York for M. <fc. P. Metzger, 417 Seventh street, Washington, D. C] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 9. SI 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 117. 8 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* 11.49 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 10.87 

Calcium oxide, CaO 2.22 

Aluminium oxide, Al 2 0:5 ::.:!."> 

Ammonia, NH 3 1.59 

Phosphoric acid, P : 0-, 5. 11 

Sulphuric acid, SO :J 10. 14 

Starch 34.97 

Water of combination and association by difference *~ )n . 26 

100. 00 
PROBABLE PERCEN l AGE I OMBLNA Hon. 

Sodium bicarbonate, Nallcn 21.93 

I Residual sodium oxide NagO) 2. 78 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous : 

Al SO 11.15 

Nil, B0 4 3 

Ml 60 

15.61 

A'i.l phosphate Of Lime, anhydrous: 

C:.l'<» 

II PO, 

9. 19 

Starch 

Water of association (phosphate and orystallizal ion (alum) 15.52 

100. 00 



616 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

6535. — The Atlantic and Pacific Baking- Powder. 

[Made by The Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, New York.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. 7. 91 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 95. 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* 9. 45 

Sodium oxide, Na 2 12.15 

Calcium oxide, CaO 1. 93 

Aluminium oxide, AlsQs 3.25 

Ammonia, NH 3 .72 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 5 5. 71 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 8.93 

Starch 37. 66 

Water of combination and association by difference 20.20 

100. 00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOa 1ft. 04 

i Kesidual sodium oxide, Na 2 0) 5. 15 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

Al s (80 4 )s - 10.82 

(NHOaSO* 2.41 

13. S3 

\cid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

CasCPOOa 3.50 

II IM), 5.03 

9. 19 

Starch 37.66 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) lii.7:? 

100. 00 
5530. — Silver King Baking- Powder. 

[Made by Shaw A Thomas, NVw Fork.J 

Available carbonic; acid per cent . . I. f>9 

Cubic inobes per ounce of powder al 212 1' 59 '» 

PI i:< !.\ i \t;i: COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO* 6.18 

Sodium oxide, Na <> W.39 

Calcium oxide, CaO - 79 

Ammonia, Nl I , I 04 

Aluminium oxide, AM> : . 3.75 

Phosphoric acid, P < >. ' ~ ' 

Sulphuric acid, SOj 10 ,67 

St and. 42.66 

Water of combination and assooial Ion by difference 16. 86 



KM) .()() 



BAKING POWDERS. 617 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 11.68 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na-O) 6. <>1 

Ammouia alum, anhydrous: 

A1,(S0 4 % 12.49 

(NH 4 ) 2 S0 4 3.02 

NH 3 26 

15. 77 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous : 

Ca 5 (P0 4 ): 5.15 

H3PO4 4.87 

10. 02 

Starch -... 42.66 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 13.86 

100. 00 
5532. — Eureka Baking- To wder. 

[Made by G. S. Feeny, Wheeling, W. Va.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent. . 7. 6Si 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212° F 01.5 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CC\> 0.57 

Sodium oxide, NftgO 11. 36 

Calcium oxide, CaO 1. 1)3 

Aluminium oxide, Al^O:) 3. 14 

Ammonia, NH 3 .85 

Phosphoric acid, P.O.^ .. 2.66 

Sulphuric acid. 80a 11.30 

Starch 44.33 

Water ol* combination and association by difference 14.-7 

KM). 1 11 



PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOg 18.27 

1 Residual sodium oxide, Vi.< >j 1. 68 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous: 

in 15 

(MI OSO4 3.31 

1:;. 7.; 

Calcium sulphate, CaSO< 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

1 •(),).■ 

1 1 ro< 

3.91 

Starch II.:;.' 

Water of association (phosphate 1 and crystallisation (alum) 11.74 



618 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTEKANTS. 

5533. — SWtM r Star Baking-Pomder. 

[Made by E. Caul... , Dayton, Ohio.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent.. "7.61 

Cubic inches per ounce of powder at 212 F 91. -1 

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION. 

Total carbonic acid, CO : 9. 89 

Sodium oxide, Na-0 12.69 

Potassium oxide, K 2 .74 

Calcium oxide, CaO 2. 16 

Alumiuum oxide, AI2O3 ;>. 38 

Ammonia, NH 3 .77 

Phosphoric acid, P 2 5 5. 30 

Sulphuric acid, S0 3 10.66 

Starch 37.57 

Water of combination and association by difference 1C. w 4 

100. 00 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO :i 18.88 

(Residual sodium oxide, Na.O) f>. 73 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous : 

AliCSOOa 11.25 

(XH 4 ),S0 4 2.98 

14. 23 

Calcium sulphate, CaS0 4 1.66 

Acid phosphate of lime, anhydrous: 

Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 - 2.73 

H3PO4 5.59 

8. 32 

Starch . 37. 57 

Water of association (phosphate) and crystallization (alum) 13.61 

100.00 
5534. — Purity Bdking-Pomk r. 

[Made by Smith, llanuav A Co., Baltimore, Md.] 

Available carbonic acid per cent . . T'.IS 

Cubic inches pei ounce of powder at 212 V 85. U 

PBBCl N 1 AGE COMPOS] RON. 

Total carbonic acid, CO9 9. 3*2 

Sodium ox i tie, NagO 12.29 

Caloinm oxide, CaO 4.55 

A 1 11 111 in iu 111 oxide, Al/) ( X. 34 

A in 11 ion i a, Nil; .93 

Phosphoric acid, I'.o,, 

Siil 1 dm rie acid, SO; 13.23 

Starch 40. 19 

Water of combination and association by did ere nee . ,12.62 

100. 0(1 



BAKING POWDERS. 619 

PROBABLE PERCENTAGE COMBINATION. 

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCOj 1^.75 

(Residual sodium oxide, NagO) 5.37 

Ammonia alum, anhydrous : 

A1 ; (S0 4 ) 3 11.12 

(NH 4 ),S0 4 :^.59 

14.71 

Calcium sulpbate, CaS0 4 5. 58 

Acid phosphate of lime, auhydrous: 

Ca^PO,)^ 4.19 

H 3 P0 4 2.51 

6. 70 

Starch 40.19 

Water of association (phosphate) and erystaliizatiou (alum) 8. 70 

100. 00 

These analyses agree pretty closely, in a general way, with those made 
by Professors Weber and Cornwall, so far as their determinations go. 
Professor Cornwall's figures for carbonic acid are uniformly higher than 
mine, his method giving rather the total than the available per cent, of 
gas. It is evident that the determination of available carbonic acid 
made upon samples obtained in retail stores would vary more or less, 
■according to the time that had elapsed since the sample was first put up. 
This is well shown by Professor Cornwall's determinations (page 586 . 
made upon samples of the same brand of powder purchased at different 
times. It would manifestly be unjust, therefore, to decida arbitrarily 
that the relative values of the different brands were in the exact rank 
indicated by the results given in this determination. The best results 
in all the different investigations, however, are given by the tartrate 
and phosphate powders, the alum, and the alum and phosphate pow- 
ders giving almost uniformly low percentages of carbonic acid. (There 
are several exceptions, however, notably Professor Cornwall's No. 30, 
u One Spoon" giving 10.77 per cent. 1 This shows the possibilities of 
an alum powder as regards its carbonic-acid strength.) 

Professor Cornwall's average for twenty samples of alum and phos- 
phate, powders (no straight alum powders included) is 8.97 percent.; for 
eight samples of tartrate powders, 11.60. Professor Weber's average 
for nineteen samples of alum powders is 7.5S per cent.; for eight samples 
of tartrate powders, L1.20 percent. My average for twenty samples of 
both alum, and alum and phosphate powders is 8 percent.; for eight 
samples of tartrate powders, L0.10 per cent. The only straight phos- 
phate powders sold seem to be the various preparations made by the 
Romford Chemical Works, and the "Wheat" powder; at Least these 
are all obtained by any of the Investigators. The carbonic acid strength 

of the former is uniformly good, slightly higher than the tail rate DOW- 

1 Weber obtained only ">.Tr> pei cent, bom ■ powder with this brand in bii im 
gatlon, Pagi — . 

5360— pt. o "> 



62Q FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ders ; the latter is a peculiar preparation, made up without any filling 
whatever, and gives a very low percentage of carbonic acid, except in 
one of Professor Cornwall's samples, which seems to have been obtained 
quite fresh. 

FILLING. 

It is evident that of several powders made up of the same materials, 
the one which contains the smallest proportion of inert matter or tilling, 
other things being equal, will have the best carbonic-acid efficiency or 
11 strength." On the other hand, if the amount used is too small for the 
proper preservation of the sample, it will deteriorate rapidly, and per- 
haps will show less strength after keeping a short time than other 
powders with a somewhat larger amount of filling. It becomes a ques- 
tion, therefore, as to the minimum limit of the amount of filling that is 
consistent with good keeping qualities. Professor Prescott 1 says on 
this point : 

From 13 to 18 per cent, of starch is not too much for the permanence of a cream of 
tartar baking-powder, but filling beyond 20 per cent, must be held au uuquestionable 
dilution. 

In my samples, the average per cent, of starch in the bitartrate pow- 
ders was 14.04 ; the highest was 24.57 per cent., and the lowest 5.32 
per cent. The latter sample evidently did not contain enough, for it 
had a much lower carbonic-acid strength than most of those that had 
more filling. The bitartrate powder containing the maximum of fill- 
ing, Xo. 5557, contained also the lowest per cent, of available car- 
bonic acid. The powders made up with free tartaric acid contained 
much more filling, this being doubtless necessitated by the more hy- 
groscopic character of the free acid. They contain, respectively, 40.05 
and 45.G3 per cent, of starch, and 9.53 and 4.98 per cent, of available 
carbonic-acid. Of the phosphate powders No. 5508 contains rather a 
largo amount of filling, 2G.41 per cent., while No. 5506 contains none 
at all, evidently to its detriment, as previously noted. Even the acid 
part of No. 5509 contains 20.81 per cent, of starch, although it ia kept 
separate from the alkali. It is in the alum, and the alum and phosphate 
powders, however, that the highest percentages of tilling are found. 
The average of all is 40.76 per cent, of starch, the maximum 52.29 per 
cent., the mini in urn, 3J.54 per cent. Here we find the cause tortlie low 
per cents, of available carbonic acid in these powders, which should, 
theoretically, afford a higher carbonic-acid strength than any of the 
Other classes. Whether a large amount Of tilling i* more necessary 

w here alum is used to prevent deterioration, whether it is added simply 

as a diluent, SO that the amount Of alum taken into the starch will be less 

apt to produce an injurious effect, or whether it Is added to cheapen tin* 

pow(Jj»r, I can not mxy. The first hypothesis seems the most probable, 

» Organic Analyses, . r >oo. 



BAKING POWDERS. 621 

especially if the alum is used with but a small proportion of its water of 
crystallization driven off. If the second is true, the object is not ob- 
tained, of course, for the more filling used the greater the quantity of 
powder required to produce the same aerating effect, and as for the 
third, alum and soda are about as cheap as starch. 

ft must be remembered that the percentages of starch given in the 
tables represent anhydrous starch. 

"DOMESTIC BAKING-POWDERS." 

It may be asked, can not the consumer make up his own baking-pow- 
ders? The difficulties in the way of doing this may be enumerated as 
follows : 

(1) The chemicals in the market, as purchased by the consumer, may 
not be pure, or of full strength, so that when combined in proper pro- 
portions they do not give good results. 

(2) The proper proportions to use, and the necessity of thorough mix- 
ing to secure good results, would not be well understood by any one 
who was not a chemist. 

(3) In order to prevent the action of the ingredients upon one another, 
and to preserve the strength of the powder unimpaired as long as pos 
sible, the manufacturer dries all his chemicals before mixing them, so as 
to drive off most of the adhering moisture. Baking-soda can not be dried 
much, as it loses its carbonic acid, and consequently its efficiency, at 
very low temperatures. The starch, however, containing as it does 
from 10 to 18 per cent, of moisture, can be thoroughly diied at 100° to 
105° C, and its efficiency as a filling material greatly increased. The 
cream of tartar can also be thoroughly dried. This operation of drying 
chemicals at a temperature below that at which decomposition would 
occur seems rather too elaborate an operation for the kitchen. 

These difficulties are more apparent than real, however. In answer 
to the first, it may be said that the bitartrate is the only chemical which 
La likely to be adulterated, and as there is no difficulty nowadays in ob- 
taining a pure article in the wholesale market, it only requires the proper 
enforcement of adulteration laws to oblige the retailer to furnish a good 
article. The second objection may bo met by furnishing the public 
simple formula} for compounding such powders, and the third, which is 
doubtless the most serious, 1 believe can be overcome by using a larger 
proportion of filling, without drying the chemicals. 

In the present day 8 of cooking-schools, when so much interest is taken 
in the preparation of food, and in all branches of the culinary art, it may 
not be amiss to devote a little Space to the discussion of this subject, 

although it is not, perhaps, strictly within the scope of the present in- 
vestigation. 

With a view of determining the possibility of making ap baking-pow- 
ders from a simple formula that could in- nsed in the household, and 



622 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

also to see what strength of powder could be obtaiued by lessening the 
quantity of tilling used, I compounded a number of powders from com- 
mercial cream of tartar and soda, using different proportions of starch, 
and determined the percent, of carbonic acid, both total and available, 
in each. The chemicals used were dried before mixing, and the latter 
operation very thoroughly performed. 

Formula Xo. 1, containing 20 per cent, starch filling. 

Cream of tartar ounces.. 8 

Baking-soda do 4 

Com starch do 3 

Total carbonic acid per cent.. 13. 39 

Available carbonic acid do 11.96 

Formula Xo. 2, containing about 15 per cent, .starch filling. 

Cream of tartar ounces.. 8 

Baking-eoda do 4 

Corn starch do.... 2 

Total carbonic acid per cent.. 14. GO 

Available carbonic acid do 12.89 

Formula Xo. 3, containing 10 per cent, starch filling. 

Cream of tartar ounces.. G 

Baking-soda , do 3 

Corn starch do 1 

Total carbonic acid per cent.. 15. 10 

Available carbonic acid do 13.70 

From the above it will be seen that most excellent results were ob- 
tained with these powders, made up by simple formal®. The powder 
containing the least percentage of starch, Formula No. 3, gave L3.70 per 
cent, of available carbonic acid, nearly 1 percent, more than the highest 
n suit obtained in any of the commercial samples. To be sure these 
powders were freshly made and would doubtless deteriorate on keep- 
ing, those with the lowest amount of starch perhaps more rapidly than 
the others, as most of the commercial samples containing less than 10 
per cent, of starch show low percentages of available carbonic acid. No. 
5505 being an exception. Bat these prepared samples establish very 

completely the point 1 desired to make, that baking-powders can be 

readily made 1 1 1 > by simple formulae that will compare favorably with 

the best samples obtainable in the market. 

These samples, however, were all made with well-dried ingredients, 

as they would be by a manufacturer. The next question 18, whether a 

powder could be made which would keep without serious deterioration, 



BAKING POWDERS. 623 

without drying the chemicals. To this end I used a larger proportion 
of starch according to the following formula : 

Formula So. 4, made without (trying the ingredients, containing 25 per cent, starch filling. 

Cream of tartar oanci 

Baking-soda do.. .. 4 

Corn starch - do.. .. 4 

Total carbonic acid percent.. 12. »j:> 

Available carbonic acid do LO. 91 

This gives a fairly good amount of available gas. considerably higher 
than the average of the commercial samples. Estimations of the avail- 
able carbonic acid in the same sample after it had stood over two 
mouths in the laboratory showed absolutely no loss in strength. I 
had it tried in a practical way by several persons in the Department 
who used it in their kitchens, and reported excellent results, finding 
it fully as efficient in all respects as the powder they were accustomed to 
buy. The consumer can pay full retail price for the ingredients and still 
make it up for about half the price at which a good powder is sold, and 
if he makes sure of the quality of his cream of tartar he will have an 
article of which the purity is assured, and which has not lost in strength 
by being kept in stock an indefinite length of time by the retailer. I 
can see no reason why all housekeepers should not make their own bak- 
ing-powder. 



REGULATION OF THE SALE OF BAKING POWDERS. 

The best plan for the regulatiou by law of the sale of baking-powder^ 
in the present condition of our knowledge of their effect upon tie 
tern would seem to be to require the manufacturer to use a label giving 
approximately the composition, or analysis, of the powder sold. This 
is recommended by Professor Cornwall, and it appears to offer the best 
solution of the whole problem. The testimony that has been adduced is 
hardly sufficient to justify the prohibition of the sale of the cheaper 
kinds of powders as being injurious to health, but if they were required 
to be sold with a label giving their true composition it would soon Lead 
to investigations upon this point. This is in harmony, also, with mod- 
ern ideas in regard to legal regulation of the sale of food-Stuffs, tin* 
tendency nowadays being to allow the sale of cheap substitutes lor any 
article of food SO long as they are not actually injurious to health, but 
to make all possible provision to insure that the purchaser should know 

exactly what he is getting, and that the substitute shall not i»c palmed 
off on him as the genuine article. In the ease of baking powders it is 

manifestly unjusl to the public to allow the sale of a first-class tartrate 
powder and an alum powder asthe same article, and it is equally unjust 

to the manufacturer of the higher-priced article. The nature of the sub 



624 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

stance is such that the purchaser has no means of ascertaining by any 
simple or easy means the character of the article he buys, to say noth- 
ing of its relative qualify. Such a regulation should meet with the ap- 
probation of all concerned in the manufacture of baking-powders. The 
manufacturers of high-grade powders, such as tartrate or phosphate 
powders, would certainly not object to it, and it would ultimately be to 
the advantage also of the cheaper sorts, such as alum powders, pro 
vided they could succeed in proving that such powders produced little 
or uo injury to the health of the consumer. 

Ample analogy and precedent for such regulation are furnished by 
the laws for the sale of fertilizers which are in operation in most of the 
States. Although these substances are used for widely different pur- 
poses, the conditions that require the legal supervision of their sale are 
quite similar in many respects. A substance sold as a fertilizer must 
have its composition, in so far as is necessary for its valuation for such 
a purpose, plainly stated on the bag in which it is sold, because the pur- 
chaser has no means of ascertaining this value by any ordinary or sim. 
pie test. Otherwise the manufacturer could easily impose upon him by 
selling him a powdered substance which resembled a fertilizer in gen- 
eral appearance, but contained no constituent of any value whatever 
for fertilizing purposes. The purchaser of a baking-powder receives a 
white powder which may contain various substances more orlessvalua 
ble for the desired purpose, or of no value whatever, or perhaps even 
injurious to the health. 

The housewife surely deserves protection against swindling as much 
as the farmer, and she has no better means for ascertaining the strength 
and quality of the baking-powder she buys than the latter has for learn- 
ing the strength of his fertilizer. The verity and accuracy of the analy- 
sis stated on the label should be insured, as in the case of the fertilizer, 
by its being performed by sworn analysts. If such a regulation weir 
enforced, people would soon inform themselves of the respective merits 
of different varieties, and the further requirement of a certain standard 
of strength, as suggested by Professor Cornwall, would probably be uo 
necessary, as they would learn to interpret the analysis, and a powder 
made up with 50 per cent, of starch, for instance, would have to be sold 
Cheaper than one made with 10 per cent., or not sold at all. 



INDEX 



A. 

Fnge. 

Acid phosphate of soda, use of 5G6 

Advertising, use of public documents for 

unauthorized ."..",7 

Aeration of bread 56 1 

method of Dr. Dauglish 5(51 

remarks of Jago on 561 

Alkalies, estimation of 593 

Allen, A. H., on the use of alum in bread 572 

Alum and phosphate powders 571 

reaction of 571 

residue of 57 1 

Aluminium, estimation of 

hydrated, solubility of 57:* 

phosphate, solubility of ~)7:'> 

Alum, kinda of, used 

powders 

reaction of 561* 

residue of 569 

use of, iu baking- powders 571 

summary of conclusions 574 

Ammonia alum 

bicarbonate of 

carbonate of, in baking-powders 575 

estimation of 

form in which present ' 

salts, residue from, in arum powders 

Atlantic and Pacific Baking Powder 616 

Lablt carbonic acid 

B. 

ig- powders, adulteration of 564 

amount need in a loaf 

analyses of 

methods of analyses — 5d8 

oLasBiflcatioa of 

comparison of aerating strength of 

oonaumption of ...• 583 

con Niining more than one aoid »70 

Investigations of. in Veiv Jegse] 564 

regulation of sale of *^ 

soda 6tt 

Blytbe, A. \V., on use of alum in bread 578 



626 INDEX. 

Page. 

Brunswick Yeast Powder 615 

Burnt alum 599 

C. 

Calcium, estimation of 595 

Carbonic acid, averages of *619 

estimation of 569 

variation of 619 

Chemical aerating agents 562 

Cleveland's Superior Baking Powder, analysis of 600 

Consumption of baking-powders in Europe 563 

Cornwall. Prof. H. B., report of 583, 564, 585, 586, 587,568 

Cottage Baking Powder 607 

Cream of tartar, use of 562 

D. 

Davie's O. K. Baking Powder 614 

Dixon's Yeast Powder 610 

Domestic baking-powders 6'21 

difficulties of manufacture 621 

formulae for 622, 623 

Duolcy's Baking Powder 607 

E. 

Eureka Baking Powder 61? 

P. 

Filling, composition of 620 

theory of 620 

variations of 620 

G. 

Graves's Imperial Baking Powder 602 

II. 

Hecker's Perfect Baking Powder, analysis or' 601 

Heokles'fl Baking Powder 608 

Horsford's Self-raising Bread Preparation, analysis of 605 

Housewives, protection of 6SH 

K. 

Knights, .J. West, report of .">71 

Ki.orr. a. E., apparel us ol 589 

I,. 

Lactic aoid, use of , and aeration 568 

■ ruing gas 599 

Letter of submittal 558 

Love, Prof. E. O., report of -" ,71 

M 

Mallet, Prof..). W.,repor1 of HI 

Iftason'i Xeasl Powder 609 

Hi Blroy, K. P., method of 605 



INDEX. g 27 

Metropolitan Baking Powder Pajre - 

Miles's Premium Baking Powder 606 

Moisture, estimation of "" 608 

596 

N. 
New York Tartar Company, letter from 

563 

rt _ O. 

Our Best Baking Powder 

603 

p. 

Patapsco Baking Powder 

Patrick, Prof. G. E., report of 611,612 

Phosphate powders " 571 

manufacture of - r, 67 

reaction of 567 

residue of 567 

Phosphorie acid, estimation of r,,;7 

Pitkin, Prof. Lucius, report of ....... - - - - r,1, ~ 

Potash alum 571 

Prefatory note " 

Price's Cream Baking PowclVrV analysis of '"" 

Purity Baking Powder 600 

618 

Results of analyses, expression of.. 

Rochelle salts, occurrence of ' 5; ' : 

Royal Baking Powdc, analysisof ". 

Rumford Yeast Powder 599 

604 

S. 
Sea Foam Baking Powder, analysis of . 

Seidlitz powder, occurrence of 601 

Silver King Baking Powder...*""!.. 

Silver Spoon Baking Powder 616 

Silver Star Baking Powder....".... 613 

Starch, estimation of 618 

_ x .. hy Professor Weber . 591 

Sterling Raking Powder 592 

Sulphuric acid, estimation of **" 603 

596 

T 

Tartaric acid, estimation ot 

: 

Tartrate powders 

reaction of .. 

Thurber'fl Beef Baking Powder ........ 

60S 



Vienna Baking Powder 

• — 606 

Weber, Prof H. a., report of . 

Wheat BakingPowder '"" 

Windsor Baking Powder 

6J j 

C 



( 



t 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 






3 1262 09216 6718